SpondylolisthesisPars interarticularisInterbody fusion cage: An interbody fusion cage (colloquially known as a "spine cage") is a prosthesis used in spinal fusion procedures to maintain foraminal height and decompression. They are cylindrical or square-shaped devices, and usually threaded.Currarino syndrome: The Currarino syndrome (also Currarino triad) is an inherited congenital disorder where (1) the sacrum (the fused vertebrae forming the back of the pelvis) is not formed properly, (2) there is a mass in the presacral space in front of the sacrum, and (3) there are malformations of the anus or rectum. It can also cause an anterior meningocele or a presacral teratoma.Spinal stenosis: Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal canal that may occur in any of the regions of the spine. This narrowing causes a restriction to the spinal canal, resulting in a neurological deficit.LordosisFacet joint injection: Facet joint injections are used to alleviate symptoms of facet joint syndrome.Facet Joint SyndromeSpinal decompression: Spinal decompression is the relief of pressure on one or many pinched nerves (neural impingement) of the spinal column.Herbert screw: The Herbert screw (invented by Timothy Herbert) is a variable pitch cannulated screw typically made from titanium for its stainless properties as the screw is normally intended to remain in the patient indefinitely. It became generally available in 1978.LaminectomyCervical spine disorder: Cervical Spine Disorders are illnesses that are relatively detrimental to ones physical health. These ailments exist in the cervical spine which is made up of the upper first seven vertebrae, encasing and shielding the Spinal cord.Degenerative disc diseaseIntervertebral disc damage and spaceflight: Astronauts have expressed an increased incidence of back pain during spaceflight and herniated intervertebral discs (IVD) have been diagnosed upon return of Skylab and Shuttle spaceflight participants.Lumbar disc disease: Lumbar disc disease is the drying out of the spongy interior matrix of an intervertebral disc in the spine. Many physicians and patients use the term lumbar disc disease to encompass several different causes of back pain or sciatica.Harrington Meeting HouseCamptocormia: CamptocormiaRadiculopathyLow back painInguinal ligament: The inguinal ligament (Poupart's ligament) is a band running from the pubic tubercle to the anterior superior iliac spine. Its anatomy is very important for operating on hernia patients.Scoliosis Research SocietyDemineralized freeze dried bone allograft: Demineralized freeze dried bone allograft, referred to as DFDBA, is a bone graft material known for its [novo] bone formation properties.Bowers, GM, et al.International Disability and Development Consortium: The International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) is a global consortium of disability and development related organisations. The aim of IDDC is to promote inclusive development internationally, with a special focus on promoting human rights for all disabled people living in economically poor communities in lower and middle-income countries.Henry Beighton: Henry Beighton (c. 20 August 1687 – 9 October 1743) was an English engineer and surveyor.PseudarthrosisBradford Hill criteria: The Bradford Hill criteria, otherwise known as Hill's criteria for causation, are a group of minimal conditions necessary to provide adequate evidence of a causal relationship between an incidence and a possible consequence, established by the English epidemiologist Sir Austin Bradford Hill (1897–1991) in 1965.Falx cerebri: The falx cerebri is also known as the cerebral falx, named from its sickle-like form. It is a large, crescent-shaped fold of meningeal layer of dura mater that descends vertically in the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral hemispheres.Journal of Minimal Access Surgery: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery (ISSN: Print - 0972-9941, Online - 1998-3921) is peer-reviewed open access journal published on behalf of the Indian Association of Gastrointestinal Endo Surgeons. The journal publishes articles on the subject of Laparoscopic and thoracoscopic surgery, laparoscopic urology and gastrointestinal endoscopy.Boston brace: The Boston brace, a type of thoraco-lumbo-sacral-orthosis (TLSO), is a back brace used primarily for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in children. It was developed in 1972 by John Hall and William Miller at the Boston Children's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.Pain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.HyperintensitySpinal fractureCervical fractureUpper motor neuron lesion: An upper motor neuron lesion (also known as pyramidal insufficiency) is a lesion of the neural pathway above the anterior horn cell of the spinal cord or motor nuclei of the cranial nerves. This is in contrast to a lower motor neuron lesion, which affects nerve fibers traveling from the anterior horn of the spinal cord or the cranial motor nuclei to the relevant muscle(s).Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.