Ruminant: Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions. The process typically requires the fermented ingesta (known as cud) to be regurgitated and chewed again.Angora goat: The Angora goat () is a breed of domestic goat that is named after Ankara, Turkey, historically known as Angora. Angora goats produce the lustrous fibre known as mohair.Corriedale: Corriedale sheep are a dual purpose breed, meaning they are used both in the production of wool and meat. The Corriedale is the oldest of all the crossbred breeds, a Merino-Lincoln cross developed almost simultaneously in Australia and New ZealandStock Types, The Land, North Richmond, c.Hippopotamus antiquus: Hippopotamus antiquus, sometimes called the European Hippopotamus, was a species of hippopotamus that ranged across Europe, becoming extinct some time before the last ice age at the end of the Pleistocene epoch. H.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Deer farm: A deer farm is a fenced piece of land suitable for grazing that is populated with deer such as elk, moose, and even reindeer raised for the purpose of hunting tourism or as livestock. This practice is very different from the way such Arctic communities like the Laplanders migrate in open country with their herds of reindeer.Bluetongue disease: Bluetongue disease is a-contagious, insect-borne, viral disease of ruminants, mainly sheep and more frequently cattle, goats, buffalo, deer, dromedaries, and antelope. It is caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV).Dry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.Rinderpest: Rinderpest (also cattle plague or steppe murrain) was an infectious viral disease of cattle, domestic buffalo, and some other species of even-toed ungulates, including buffaloes, large antelope and deer, giraffes, wildebeests, and warthogs. The disease was characterized by fever, oral erosions, diarrhea, tenesmus, lymphoid necrosis, and high mortality.Simon Carpenter: Dr. Simon Carpenter, Head of the Entomology and Modelling Group in the Vector-borne Diseases Programme at the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council Institute for Animal Health’s Pirbright Laboratory in Woking, Surrey, is an entomologist who was awarded the first Rooker Prize in 2009 in recognition of his research on biting midges that transmit bluetongue virus (BTV), the causative agent of bluetongue disease, an important orbivirus disease of ruminants.National Bison Range herd: The National Bison Range herd of American bison at the National Bison Range Wildlife Refuge in Flathead Valley of the U.S.Interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs: The interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs is an ongoing process affecting the population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia. The current population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia is now probably higher than in the past.Haemonchus contortus: Haemonchus contortus, also known as the barber's pole worm, is very common parasite and one of the most pathogenic nematodes of ruminants. Adult worms attach to abomasal mucosa and feed on the blood.Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an obligate pathogenic bacterium in the genus Mycobacterium. It is often abbreviated M.Bao duSchmallenberg virus: Schmallenberg virus is the informal name given to a recently isolated orthobunyavirus, which has not been given a formal name , initially reported in November 2011 to cause congenital malformations and stillbirths in cattle, sheep, goats, and possibly alpaca. It appears to be transmitted by midges (Culicoides spp.Antelope: An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia. Antelopes comprise a wastebasket taxon (miscellaneous group) within the family Bovidae, encompassing those Old World species that are not cattle, sheep, buffalo, bison, or goats.EhrlichiaCulicoides imicola: Culicoides imicola is a midge which transmits the bluetongue virus. Other suspected BTV vectors are Culicoides (Culicoides) pulicaris and species in the Culicoides (Avaritia) obsoletus complex.Strongylida: The Strongylida suborder includes many of the important nematodes found in the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants, horses, and swine, as well as the lungworms of ruminants and the hookworms of dogs and cats.Abomasitis: Abomasitis (abomasal bloat) is a relatively rare ruminant disease characterized by inflammation of abomasum in young calves, lambs, and goat kids. It occurs with gastroenteritis but is seldom diagnosed as a separate condition, and its causes are as yet unknown.Gastrointestinal physiology: Gastrointestinal physiology is a branch of human physiology addressing the physical function of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The major processes occurring in the GI system are that of motility, secretion, regulation, digestion and circulation.Cama (animal): *CamelusVisna virus: Visna virus (also known as visna-maedi virus, maedi-visna virus and ovine lentivirus) from the genus lentivirinae and subfamily Orthoretrovirinae, is a "prototype" retrovirus that causes encephalitis and chronic pneumonitis in sheep. It is known as visna when found in the brain, and maedi when infecting the lungs.HD 12139Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus: Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a retrovirus that infects goats.Powdered milk: Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content.C. J. Peters: Clarence James Peters, Jr, M.D.Nematode infectionNitrogen deficiencyAlphaherpesvirinae: Alphaherpesvirinae is a subfamily of Herpesviridae, primarily distinguished by reproducing more quickly than other subfamilies of Herpesviridae. In animal virology the most important herpesviruses belong to the Alphaherpesvirinae.New Mexico Livestock Board: The New Mexico Livestock Board regulates livestock health and livestock identification in New Mexico, in the United States. It was created in 1967 by the merger of the New Mexico Cattle Sanitary Board and the New Mexico Sheep Sanitary Board.College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand: The College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand was founded in 1964. It is a part of AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.Distributed cache: In computing, a distributed cache is an extension of the traditional concept of cache used in a single locale. A distributed cache may span multiple servers so that it can grow in size and in transactional capacity.BiuretPlum Island Animal Disease Center: Plum Island Animal Disease Center of New York (PIADCNY) is a United States federal research facility dedicated to the study of animal diseases. It is part of the DHS Directorate for Science and Technology.Short-chain fatty acid: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs),"Role of Volatile Fatty Acids in Development of the Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens during Growth" at are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail of less than six carbon atoms.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Reticulum (anatomy): The reticulum is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of a ruminant animal. Anatomically it is considered the smaller portion of the reticulorumen along with the rumen.SurfbirdOnobrychis viciifolia: Onobrychis viciifolia, also known as O. sativa or common sainfoin has been an important forage legume in temperate regions until the 1950s.List of poisonous plantsLactic acid fermentationPaddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.Coles PhillipsAlcelaphine herpesvirus 2MastitisErosive pustular dermatitis of the scalp: Erosive pustular dermatitis of the scalp (also known as "Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp") presents with pustules, erosions, and crusts on the scalp of primarily older Caucasean females, and on biopsy, has a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with or without foreign body giant cells and pilosebaceous atrophy.Freedberg, et al.Coxiella burnetii: Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen, and is the causative agent of Q fever. The genus Coxiella is morphologically similar to Rickettsia, but with a variety of genetic and physiological differences.Chlamydia (genus): Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites. Chlamydia infections are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in humans and are the leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide.