Endodontic files and reamers: Endodontic files and reamers are surgical instruments used by dentists when performing root canal treatment. These tools are particularly used to clean and shape the root canal, with the concept being to perform complete chemomechanical debridement of the root canal to the length of the apical foramen.Electronic apex locator: 200px|right|thumbJournal of Endodontics: The Journal of Endodontics is the official journal of the American Association of Endodontists and is published by Elsevier. It is a monthly journal that was established in 1975 and publishes scientific articles, case reports, and studies comparing different tools, materials, and methods used in endodontic treatment.Smear layer: The smear layer is a layer of microcrystalline and organic particle debris that is found spread on root canal walls after root canal instrumentation. It was first described in 1975 and much research has been performed since then to evaluate its importance in assisting or preventing the penetration of bacteria into the dentinal tubules.Post and core: A post and core (colloquially known as a "post" or "dental post") is a type of dental restorationEndodontic therapy: Endodontic therapy or root canal therapy is a sequence of treatment for the infected pulp of a tooth which results in the elimination of infection and the protection of the decontaminated tooth from future microbial invasion. Root canals and their associated pulp chamber are the physical hollows within a tooth that are naturally inhabited by nerve tissue, blood vessels and other cellular entities which together constitute the dental pulp.Titanium nitrideSodium hypochlorite: In dilution:Internal vertebral venous plexuses: The internal vertebral venous plexuses (intraspinal veins) lie within the vertebral canal in the epidural space, and receive tributaries from the bones and from the medulla spinalis.Phoenix abscess: A phoenix abscess is a dental abscess that can occur immediately following root canal treatment. Another cause is due to untreated necrotic pulp (chronic apical periodontitis).Limewater: Limewater is the common name for a diluted solution of calcium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, is sparsely soluble in water (1.Apical delta: Apical delta refers to the branching pattern of small accessory canals and minor foramina seen at the tip or apex of some tooth roots.Nickel electroplating: Nickel electroplating is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of nickel onto a metal object. The nickel layer can be decorative, provide corrosion resistance, wear resistance, or used to build up worn or undersized parts for salvage purposes.BrittlenessVestibular system: The vestibular system, in most mammals, is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution about the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance. Together with the cochlea, a part of the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear in most mammals, situated in the vestibulum in the inner ear (Figure 1).MalocclusionDentin sialophosphoprotein (protein): Dentin sialophosphoprotein is the only protein produced uniquely by odontoblasts, the cells that produce tooth dentin. It is a non-collagenous SIBLING protein that is later cleaved into three functional proteins: dentin phosphoprotein (also known as phosphophoryn), taken from the C-terminal end, dentin sialoprotein from the N-terminal end, and dentin glycoprotein from the middle of the molecule.OverjetThymol blueChlorhexidineNeonatal line: The neonatal line is a particular band of incremental growth lines seen in histologic sections of a deciduous tooth. It belongs to a series of a growth lines in tooth enamel known as the Striae of Retzius.Dental radiographyPulpitisIodoformMineral trioxide aggregate: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed for use as a dental root repair material by Dr. Mahmoud Torabinejad, DMD, MSD, PhD Professor and Director of Advanced Specialty Education Programs in Endodontics at Loma Linda University School of Dentistry and was formulated from commercial Portland cement combined with bismuth oxide powder for radiopacity.DBFS: Decibels relative to full scale, commonly abbreviated dBFS, measures decibel amplitude levels in digital systems such as pulse-code modulation (PCM) which have a defined maximum available peak level.Endodontic retreatment: Endodontic retreatment describes a dental root canal procedure that is carried out on a tooth that has previously had root canal treatment. For this reason it is also called "repeat root canal treatment".Depleted zinc oxide: Depleted zinc oxide (DZO) is a zinc oxide depleted in the zinc isotope with the atomic mass 64, and used as a corrosion inhibitor in nuclear pressurized water reactors.Silicate: A silicate is a compound containing an anionic silicon compound. The great majority of silicates are oxides, but hexafluorosilicate ([SiF6]2−) and other anions are also included.White Portland cement: White Taavo Portland cement or white ordinary Portland cement (WOPC) is similar to ordinary, gray Portland cement in all aspects except for its high degree of whiteness. Obtaining this color requires substantial modification to the method of manufacture, and because of this, it is somewhat more expensive than the gray product.