Heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein particle: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are complexes of RNA and protein present in the cell nucleus during gene transcription and subsequent post-transcriptional modification of the newly synthesized RNA (pre-mRNA). The presence of the proteins bound to a pre-mRNA molecule serves as a signal that the pre-mRNA is not yet fully processed and ready for export to the cytoplasm.Exonic splicing enhancer: In molecular biology, an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) is a DNA sequence motif consisting of 6 bases within an exon that directs, or enhances, accurate splicing of heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) or pre-mRNA into messenger RNA (mRNA).MALAT1-associated small cytoplasmic RNACajal bodyFibrillarin: rRNA 2'-O-methyltransferase fibrillarin is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FBL gene.Influenza virus nucleoprotein: Influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) is a structural protein which encapsidates the negative strand viral RNA. NP is one of the main determinants of species specificity.U11 spliceosomal RNARNA-binding protein database: The RNA-binding Proteins Database (RBPDB) is a biological database of RNA-binding protein specificities that includes experimental observations of RNA-binding sites. The experimental results included are both in vitro and in vivo from primary literature.U6 spliceosomal RNAYjdF RNA motifColes PhillipsArtemia salinaMortimer's disease: Mortimer's disease is a skin disease characterized by red blotchy patterns appearing all over the face and hands, and spreading through the body in an almost symmetrical pattern. The fact that there are no ulcers, and an absence of crust, indicate that this is a different entity than lupus vulgaris.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy: Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy (congenital dSMA) is a hereditary genetic condition characterized by muscle wasting (atrophy), particularly of distal muscles in legs and hands, and by early-onset contractures (permanent shortening of a muscle or joint) of the hip, knee, and ankle. Affected individuals often have shorter lower limbs relative to the trunk and upper limbs.Methanocaldococcus jannaschii: Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (formerly Methanococcus jannas chii) is a thermophilic methanogenic archaea in the class Methanococci. It was the first archaeon to have its complete genome sequenced.Nucleolus: The nucleolus (; plural nucleoli ) is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, where it primarily serves as the site of ribosome synthesis and assembly. Nucleoli also have other important functions like assembly of signal recognition particles and playing a role in the cell's response to stress.Pyrococcus C/D box small nucleolar RNAMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.PRMT4 pathwayProximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Influenza Research Database: The Influenza Research Database (IRD)IRD Influenza Research Database BRCSquires, R.B.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Protein K (gene expression): Protein K is a human protein found in the cell nucleus that binds to pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) as a component of heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein particles. The simian homolog is known as protein H16.Protoplasm: Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane. It is a general term for the cytoplasm.RRNA small subunit pseudouridine methyltransferase Nep1: RRNA small subunit pseudouridine methyltransferase Nep1 (, Nep1, nucleolar essential protein 1) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:18S rRNA (pseudouridine1191-N1)-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionNucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.Autoantibody: An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins. Many autoimmune diseases, (notably lupus erythematosus), are caused by such autoantibodies.Decapping complex: The mRNA decapping complex is a protein complex in eukaryotic cells responsible for removal of the 5' cap. The core of the decapping complex is the Nudix family enzyme Dcp2.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Translational regulation: Translational regulation refers to the control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA. The corresponding mechanisms are primarily targeted on the control of ribosome recruitment on the initiation codon, but can also involve modulation of the elongation or termination of protein synthesis.Systemic lupus erythematosus and pregnancy: For women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), pregnancy can present some particular challenges for both mother and child.MT-RNR2: Mitochondrially encoded 16S RNA (often abbreviated as 16S) is a mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that in humans is encoded by the MT-RNR2 gene. The MT-RNR2 gene also encodes the Humanin polypeptide that has been the target of Alzheimer's disease research.Buoyant density ultracentrifugation: Buoyant density centrifugation uses the concept of buoyancy to separate molecules in solution. Usually a caesium chloride (CsCl) solution is used, but in the general case it's usually approximately the same density as the molecules that are to be centrifuged.Anti-dsDNA antibodies: Anti-dsDNA antibodies are a group of anti-nuclear antibodies and their target antigen is double stranded DNA. Blood tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence are routinely performed to detect anti-dsDNA antibodies in diagnostic laboratories.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.DExD/H box proteins: DEAD box, DEAH, and the Ski families of proteins are all referred to as DExD/H box proteins. They are all quite distinct from one another and there is not one protein that belongs to more than one of these families.HT-0712Influenza virus matrix protein 2: Matrix protein 2 of Influenza virus is a single-spanning transmembrane protein. It is expressed on the infected cell surface and incorporated into virions where it is a minor component.Telomerase: Telomerase also called telomere terminal transferaseWhat are telomeres and telomerase? is a ribonucleoprotein that adds the polynucleotide "TTAGGG" to the 3' end of telomeres, which are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.Nuclear RNase PPSI-6130HITS-CLIP: High-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) is a genome-wide means of mapping protein–RNA binding sites in vivo.Darnell RB (2010) HITS-CLIP: panoramic views of protein-RNA regulation in living cells.Extension Poly(A) Test: The extension Poly(A) Test (ePAT) describes a method to determine the poly(A) tail lengths of mRNA molecules. It was developed and described by A.Cryptic unstable transcript: Cryptic Unstable Transcripts (CUTs) are a subset of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are produced from intergenic and intragenic regions. CUTs were first observed in S.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Zuotin: Z-DNA binding protein 1, also known as Zuotin, is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast gene.Low-voltage electron microscope: Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. While the low voltage electron microscopy technique will never replace conventional high voltage electron microscopes, it is quickly becoming appreciated for many different disciplines.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Nuclear transport: The entry and exit of large molecules from the cell nucleus is tightly controlled by the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Although small molecules can enter the nucleus without regulation, macromolecules such as RNA and proteins require association with transport factors like karyopherins called importins to enter the nucleus and exportins to exit.Armitage–Doll multistage model of carcinogenesis: The Armitage–Doll model is a statistical model of carcinogenesis, proposed in 1954 by Peter Armitage and Richard Doll, which suggested that a sequence of multiple distinct genetic events preceded the onset of cancer. The original paper has recently been reprinted with a set of commentary articles.RanGAP: RanGAP is a protein involved in the transport of other proteins from the cytosol to the nucleus in eukaryotic cells.LeucoplastHairpin ribozyme