Autorefractor: An autorefractor or automated refractor is a computer-controlled machine used during an eye examination to provide an objective measurement of a person's refractive error and prescription for glasses or contact lenses. This is achieved by measuring how light is changed as it enters a person's eye.Sustainability marketing myopia: Sustainability marketing myopia is a term used in sustainability marketing referring to a distortion stemming from the overlooking of socio-environmental attributes of a sustainable product or service at the expenses of customer benefits and values. The idea of sustainability marketing myopia is rooted into conventional marketing myopia theory, as well as green marketing myopia.Rimless eyeglasses: Rimless eyeglasses, are a type of eyeglasses in which the lenses are mounted directly to the bridge and/or temples. The style is divided into two subtypes: three piece glasses are composed of lenses mounted to a bridge and two separate temple arms, while rimways (also called cortlands) feature a supporting arch that connects the temples to the bridge and provides extra stability for the lenses.Monocular estimate method: The monocular estimate method or monocular estimation method is a form of dynamic retinoscopy widely used to objectively measure accommodative response.Tassinari JT.Astigmatism: An optical system with astigmatism is one where rays that propagate in two perpendicular planes have different focus. If an optical system with astigmatism is used to form an image of a cross, the vertical and horizontal lines will be in sharp focus at two different distances.Spasm of accommodation: A spasm of accommodation (also known as an accommodation, or accommodative spasm) is a condition in which the ciliary muscle of the eye remains in a constant state of contraction. Normal accommodation allows the eye to "accommodate" for near-vision.Red reflex: The red reflex refers to the reddish-orange reflection of light from the eye's retina that is observed when using an ophthalmoscope or retinoscope from approximately 30 cm / 1 foot. This examination is usually performed in a dimly lit or dark room.LogMAR chart: A LogMAR chart comprises rows of letters and is used by ophthalmologists and vision scientists to estimate visual acuity. This chart was developed at the National Vision Research Institute of Australia in 1976, and is designed to enable a more accurate estimate of acuity as compared to other charts (e.Emmetropia: Emmetropia (from Greek emmetros, "well-proportioned" or "fitting") describes the state of vision where an object at infinity is in sharp focus with the eye lens in a neutral or relaxed state. This condition of the normal eye is achieved when the refractive power of the cornea and the axial length of the eye balance out, which focuses rays exactly on the retina, resulting in perfect vision.AnisometropiaA-scan ultrasound biometry: A-scan ultrasound biometry, commonly referred to as an A-scan, is routine type of diagnostic test used in ophthalmology. The A-scan provides data on the length of the eye, which is a major determinant in common sight disorders.Guiding Eyes for the Blind: Yorktown Heights, New YorkStrabismusLandolt CAmblyopiaCyclopentolateLow vision assessment: Low vision is both a subspeciality and a condition. Optometrists and Ophthalmologists after their training may undergo further training in Low vision assessment and management.List of optometry schools: The following list of optometry schools covers many countries, although the list is not exhaustive. Internationally, optometry as a profession includes different levels of education.PresbyopiaAvi Wallerstein: Avi Wallerstein is a Canadian laser eye surgeon who practices in Montreal and Toronto. In 2001, he and Mark Cohen founded LASIK MD, Canada's largest provider of laser refractive surgery.Operation Eyesight Universal: Operation Eyesight Universal is a Canada-based international development organisation, founded in 1963. It works to prevent avoidable blindness and to cure blindness that is treatable.Neuro-ophthalmology: Neuro-ophthalmology is an academically-oriented subspecialty that merges the fields of neurology and ophthalmology, often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system. Neuro-ophthalmologists initially complete a residency in either neurology or ophthalmology, then do a fellowship in the complementary field.Robert Atkyns (topographer): Sir Robert Atkyns (1647–1711) was a topographer, antiquary, and Member of Parliament. He is best known for his county history, the Ancient and Present State of Gloucestershire.Tadpole pupil: The eye is made up of the sclera, the iris, and the pupil, a black hole located at the center of the eye with the main function of allowing light to pass to the retina. Due to certain muscle spasms in the eye, the pupil can resemble a tadpole, which consists of a circular body, no arms or legs, and a tail.Tan Tock Seng HospitalEsotropiaSaal Greenstein syndrome: Saal Greenstein syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by stunted growth, short limbs, microcephaly, and an anomalous cleavage of the anterior chamber of the eye. The disorder is similar to Robinow syndrome except for anterior chamber anomalies and, in one case, hydrocephalus.Micromirror device: Micromirror devices are devices based on microscopically small mirrors. The mirrors are Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which means that their states are controlled by applying a voltage between the two electrodes around the mirror arrays.Blind People's Association: The Blind People’s Association (BPA) is an organisation in India which promotes comprehensive rehabilitation of persons with all categories of disabilities through education, training, employment, community based rehabilitation, integrated education, research, publications, human resource development and other innovative means.Fairness to Contact Lens Consumers Act: The Fairness to Contact Lens Consumers Act (, 117 Stat. 2025, 2026, 2027, 2028 and 2029, codified at et seq.Congenital cataractDiffuse lamellar keratitis: Diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) is a sterile inflammation of the cornea which may occur after refractive surgery, such as LASIK. Its incidence has been estimated to be 1 in 500 patients, though this may be as high as 32% in some cases.Mini asymmetric radial keratotomyLens Controller: A Lens Controller is device that controls motorized photographic lens functions such as zoom, focus, and iris or aperture.Kruegle, Herman (2007).Angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry: Angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry (a/LCI) is an emerging biomedical imaging technology which uses the properties of scattered light to measure the average size of cell structures, including cell nuclei. The technology shows promise as a clinical tool for in situ detection of dysplatic, or precancerous tissue.Photorefractive keratectomyAustralia–East Timor relations: Australia–East Timor relations refer to the bilateral relations between Australia and East Timor. Both countries are near neighbors with close political and trade ties.Photoablation: Photoablation is the use of light or lasers to destroy tissues. The excimer laser of deep ultra-violet light is mainly used in Photoablation.Vitreous membrane: The vitreous membrane (or hyaloid membrane or vitreous cortex) is a layer of collagen separating the vitreous humour from the rest of the eye. At least two parts have been identified anatomically.Bacalar Chico National Park and Marine ReservePrescription cascade: Prescription cascade refers to the process whereby the side effects of drugs are misdiagnosed as symptoms of another problem resulting in further prescriptions and further side effects and unanticipated drug interactions. This may lead to further misdiagnoses and further symptoms.Ocular albinismDilated fundus examination: Dilated fundus examination or dilated-pupil fundus examination (DFE) is a diagnostic procedure that employs the use of mydriatic eye drops (such as tropicamide) to dilate or enlarge the pupil in order to obtain a better view of the fundus of the eye.Exam Information Once the pupil is dilated, examiners use ophthalmoscopy (funduscopy) to view the eye's interior, allowing assessment of the retina, optic nerve head, blood vessels, and other features.Avo PhotonicsTamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityList of soft contact lens materials: * Alphafilcon ACoherence theory: In physics, coherence theory is the study of optical effects arising from partially coherent light and radio sources. Partially coherent sources are sources where the coherence time or coherence length are limited by bandwidth, by thermal noise, or by other effect.Outline of photography: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to photography:Refractometry: Refractometry is the method of measuring substances' refractive index (one of their fundamental physical properties) in order to, for example, assess their composition or purity. A refractometer is the instrument used to measure refractive index ("RI").Pediatric ophthalmology: Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases, visual development, and vision care in children.FulminateConvergence of measures: In mathematics, more specifically measure theory, there are various notions of the convergence of measures. For an intuitive general sense of what is meant by convergence in measure, consider a sequence of measures μn on a space, sharing a common collection of measurable sets.DiplopiaCataract surgeryArizona State Prison Complex – Perryville: Arizona State Prison Complex – Perryville is one of 13 prison facilities operated by the Arizona Department of Corrections (ADC)."Arizona State Prison Complex- Perryville.Binocular vision: Binocular vision is vision in which creatures having two eyes use them together. The word binocular comes from two Latin roots, bini for double, and oculus for eye.Macula of retina: The macula or macula lutea (from Latin macula, "spot" + lutea, "yellow") is an oval-shaped pigmented area near the center of the retina of the human eye. It has a diameter of around .Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Ophthalmic Viscosurgical Device: Ophthalmic Viscosurgical Device (OVD) is viscoelastic solution used in eye surgery also referred to as viscoelastic agents. Their introduction has had a profound influence on the evolution of extracapsular and phacoemulsification surgery, and their use has decreased the incidence of corneal edema as aIntraocular pressureWater injection (oil production): Water injection or water flooding refers to the method in the oil industry where water is injected into the reservoir, usually to increase pressure and thereby stimulate production. Water injection wells can be found both on- and offshore, to increase oil recovery from an existing reservoir.Charles D. Phelps: Charles Dexter Phelps (September 16, 1937 – September 13, 1985) was a prominent American medical doctor, professor, and researcher in the field of ophthalmology. The clinical studies he oversaw contributed to significant advances in the scientific understanding and surgical and pharmacological treatment of glaucoma.Optic disc: The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye. BecauseIntraocular lens power calculation: The aim of an accurate intraocular lens power calculation is to provide an intraocular lens (IOL) that fits the specific needs and desires of the individual patient. The development of better instrumentation for measuring the eye's axial length (AL) and the use of more precise mathematical formulas to perform the appropriate calculations have significantly improved the accuracy with which the surgeon determines the IOL power.Stereopsis: Stereopsis (from the Greek στερεο- [meaning "solid", and ὄψις] opsis, "appearance, [[visual perception|sight") is a term that is most often used to refer to the perception of depth and 3-dimensional structure obtained on the basis of visual information deriving from two eyes by individuals with normally developed binocular vision.Los Angeles County Department of Public HealthMetrologyRetinal regeneration: Retinal regeneration deals with restoring retinal function to vertebrates so impaired.Oculocutaneous albinism type I: Oculocutaneous Albinism Type I or –Type 1A (OCA1A) is an autosomal recessive skin disease associated with albinism. This type of albinism is caused when the gene OCA1 does not function properly.Keratoconus