Glutamate receptorExcitotoxicity: Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances. This occurs when receptors for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (glutamate receptors) such as the NMDA receptor and AMPA receptor are overactivated by glutamatergic storm.Glutamate dehydrogenase: Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) is an enzyme, present in most microbes and the mitochondria of eukaryotes, as are some of the other enzymes required for urea synthesis, that converts glutamate to α-ketoglutarate, and vice versa. In animals, the produced ammonia is usually used as a substrate in the urea cycle.MGS-0039: MGS-0039 is a drug that is used in neuroscientific research, which acts as a potent and selective antagonist for group II of the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3).Chaki S, Yoshikawa R, Hirota S, Shimazaki T, Maeda M, Kawashima N, Yoshimizu T, Yasuhara A, Sakagami K, Okuyama S, Nakanishi S, Nakazato A.Kikunae Ikeda: was a Japanese chemist and Tokyo Imperial University professor of Chemistry who, in 1908, uncovered the chemical basis of a taste he named umami. It is one of the five basic tastes along with sweet, bitter, sour and salty.Ethynyl radicalTezampanelCGP-37849GlutamineKainic acidHSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Kainate receptorPlace cellCycloleucineSilent synapse: In neuroscience, a silent synapse is an excitatory glutamatergic synapse whose postsynaptic membrane contains NMDA-type glutamate receptors but no AMPA-type glutamate receptors. These synapses are named "silent" because normal AMPA receptor-mediated signaling is not present, rendering the synapse inactive under typical conditions.Quisqualic acidPivagabineAstrocyte: Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron = star and cyte from Greek "kyttaron" = cell), also known collectively as astroglia, are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. The proportion of astrocytes in the brain is not well defined.Patch clamp: The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology that allows the study of single or multiple ion channels in cells. The technique can be applied to a wide variety of cells, but is especially useful in the study of excitable cells such as neurons, cardiomyocytes, muscle fibers, and pancreatic beta cells.Acetonedicarboxylic acidDizocilpineGlutamine synthetaseNBQXTBR1: T-box, brain, 1 is a transcription factor protein important in vertebrate embryo development. It is encoded by the TBR1 gene.Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Neurotransmitter: Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission. They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as in a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell.Genderblind: Genderblind, also known as CG6070, is a gene that was discovered in Drosophila melanogaster by University of Illinois at Chicago researcher David Featherstone."Homosexuality Turned On and Off in Fruit Flies", LiveScience, 9 December 2007, accessed 10 December 2007 The gene encodes a member of the cystine/glutamate transporter family of proteins.Kynurenic acidAmmonia transporterCalcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".AlkylresorcinolConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.BentazonReversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.Brain healing: Brain healing is the process that occurs after the brain has been damaged. If an individual survives brain damage, the brain has a remarkable ability to adapt.Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Coles PhillipsMediated transportDodecanedioic acidPhosphoserine transaminase: Phosphoserine transaminase (, PSAT, phosphoserine aminotransferase, 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase, hydroxypyruvic phosphate-glutamic transaminase, L-phosphoserine aminotransferase, phosphohydroxypyruvate transaminase, phosphohydroxypyruvic-glutamic transaminase, 3-O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, SerC, PdxC, 3PHP transaminase) is an enzyme with system name O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionPeriodic current reversalReverse Krebs cycle: The reverse Krebs cycle (also known as the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle, the reverse TCA cycle, or the reverse citric acid cycle)Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Plateau potentials: Plateau potentials, caused by persistent inward currents (PICs), are a type of electrical behaviour seen by cells in the spinal cord. They are of particular importance to spinal motor systems.Homeostatic plasticity: In neuroscience, homeostatic plasticity refers to the capacity of neurons to regulate their own excitability relative to network activity, a compensatory adjustment that occurs over the timescale of days. Synaptic scaling has been proposed as a potential mechanism of homeostatic plasticity.Neuroprotection: Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function. In the case of an ongoing insult (a neurodegenerative insult) the relative preservation of neuronal integrity implies a reduction in the rate of neuronal loss over time, which can be expressed as a differential equation.Oblique dendrite: An oblique dendrite is a dendrite that branches from an apical dendrite which emerge from the apex of a pyramidal cell. Oblique dendrites typically branch one to two times before terminating.Monoamine reuptake inhibitor: A monoamine reuptake inhibitor (MRI) is a drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor of one or more of the three major monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine by blocking the action of one or more of the respective monoamine transporters (MATs), of which include the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and dopamine transporter (DAT). This in turn results in an increase in the synaptic concentrations of one or more of these neurotransmitters and therefore an increase in monoaminergic neurotransmission.Frontostriatal circuit: Frontostriatal circuits are neural pathways that connect frontal lobe regions with the basal ganglia (striatum) that mediate motor, cognitive, and behavioural functions within the brain. They receive inputs from dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic cell groups that modulate information processing.Neurochondrin: Neurochondrin proteins induces hydroxyapatite resorptive activity in bone marrow cells resistant to bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of macrophage- and osteoclast-mediated resorption. Expression of the gene is localised to chondrocyte, osteoblast, and osteocyte in the bone and to the hippocampus and Purkinje cell layer of cerebellum in the brain.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studying