TrastuzumabNeuregulinJohn Mendelsohn (doctor)Paracrine signalling: Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior or differentiation of those cells. Signaling molecules known as paracrine factors diffuse over a relatively short distance (local action), as opposed to endocrine factors (hormones which travel considerably longer distances via the circulatory system), juxtacrine interactions, and autocrine signaling.Breast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.Regenerative amplification: In laser science, regenerative amplification is a process used to generate short but strong pulses of laser light. It is based on a pulse trapped in a laser resonator, which stays in there until it extracts all of the energy stored in the amplification medium.Tumor-associated glycoprotein: Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like molecules with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.Hyperphosphorylation: Hyperphosphorylation occurs when a biochemical with multiple phosphorylation sites is fully saturated. Hyperphosphorylation is one of the signalling mechanisms used by the cell to regulate mitosis.MinC: The MinC protein is one of three proteins encoded by the minB operon and which is required to generate pole to pole oscillations prior to bacterial cell division as a means of specifying the midzone of the cell. This function is achieved by preventing the formation of the divisome Z-ring around the poles.Non-receptor tyrosine kinase: Non-receptor tyrosine kinases (nRTKs) are cytoplasmic enzymes that are responsible for catalysing the transfer of a phosphate group from a nucleoside triphosphate donor, such as ATP, to tyrosine residues in proteins. Non-receptor tyrosine kinases are a subgroup of protein family tyrosine kinases, enzymes that can transfer the phosphate group from ATP to a tyrosine residue of a protein (phosphorylation).Chemically induced dimerization: Chemically Induced Dimerization (CID) is a biological mechanism in which two proteins bind only in the presence of a certain small molecule, enzyme or other dimerizing agent. Genetically engineered CID systems are used in biological research to control protein localization, to manipulate signalling pathways and to induce protein activation.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Phosphotyrosine-binding domainTyrosine-kinase inhibitor: A tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes responsible for the activation of many proteins by signal transduction cascades.Monoclonal antibody therapyColes PhillipsLigand (biochemistry): In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a signal-triggering molecule binding to a site on a target protein.Indole-5,6-quinoneCyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit family: In molecular biology, the cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit family is a family of proteins consisting of the regulatory subunits of cyclin-dependent protein kinases.Breast engorgementNude mouseProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Pernicious anemiaCFU-GEMMSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor: Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of the EGF family of proteins that in humans is encoded by the HBEGF gene.Recombinant Immunotoxin Collaborative Group: The Recombinant Immunotoxin Collaborative Group (RICG) is a group of scientists specialising in immunology, biochemistry and molecular biology from the United Kingdom and Italy. The group is working toward the development of genetically engineered immunotoxins made from monoclonal antibody fragments genetically fused to either saporin or Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) for the treatment of human hematological malignancies such as leukaemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma.Ovarian Cancer National Alliance: The Ovarian Cancer National Alliance is an advocacy organization for women with ovarian cancer in the United States. To advance the interests of women with ovarian cancer, the organization advocates at a national level for increases in research funding for the development of an early detection test, improved health care practices, and life-saving treatment protocols.Hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinoneMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Extracellular signal-regulated kinases: In molecular biology, extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) or classical MAP kinases are widely expressed protein kinase intracellular signalling molecules that are involved in functions including the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. Many different stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, virus infection, ligands for heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors, transforming agents, and carcinogens, activate the ERK pathway.Embryonal rhabdomyosarcomaAntileukemic drug: Antileukemic drugs, anticancer drugs that are used to treat one or more types of leukemia, include:Cancer biomarkers: A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer.Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: (ILDS D07.120) |