Angiotensin receptor: The angiotensin receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors with angiotensin II as their ligands. They are important in the renin-angiotensin system: they are responsible for the signal transduction of the vasoconstricting stimulus of the main effector hormone, angiotensin II.AbitesartanLosartanTetrazoleJournal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System: Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Peripheral Vascular Disease. The journal's editors are Graham MacGregor and Peter Sever.IrbesartanRenin: Renin, Iran}}ImidazoleAortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.ClemizoleHypertensionLidanserin: Lidanserin (INN; ZK-33,839) is a drug which acts as a combined 5-HT2A and α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist. It was developed as an antihypertensive agent but was never marketed.Aldosterone escape: In physiology, aldosterone escape is a term that has been used to refer to two distinct phenomena involving aldosterone that are exactly opposite each other:Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.EnalaprilTerpyridineVascular smooth muscleTeprotideEnalaprilatLisinoprilConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Hypertensive nephropathyBradykininValine N-monooxygenase: Valine N-monooxygenase (, CYP79D1, CYP79D2) is an enzyme with system name L-valine,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (N-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionMyocytolysis: Myocytolysis refers to a degenerative change (often reversible) that occurs to myocytes upon myocardial strain. This phenomenon tends to occur when neighboring cardiac muscle loses its ability to contract (i.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Propyl benzoateLow sodium diet: A low sodium diet is a diet that includes no more than 1,500 to 2,400 mg of sodium per day.Heart Failure Society of America, How to follow a low sodium dietTetratricopeptide: B:89-122 A:522-555 B:228-261Muscle hypertrophyVasopressin analogue: Vasopressin analogues are chemicals similar in function but not necessarily similar in structure to vasopressin (ADH), such as desmopressin.Subfornical organ: The subfornical organ (SFO), situated on the ventral surface of the fornix (the reasoning behind the organ's name), at the interventricular foramina (foramina of Monro), is one of the circumventricular organs of the brain, meaning that it is highly vascularized and does not have a blood-brain barrier, unlike the vast majority of regions in the brain. The SFO is a sensory circumventricular organ responsive to a wide variety of hormones and neurotransmitters, as opposed to a secretory circumventricular organ.Absent adrenal glandRamiprilGoldblatt kidney: Goldblatt kidney is a condition of the kidney in which a constriction of the renal artery causes renal ischemia and the release of renin which would cause hypertension.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Fractional sodium excretion: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine. It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption.CilazaprilGlutamyl aminopeptidase: Glutamyl aminopeptidase (, aminopeptidase A, aspartate aminopeptidase, angiotensinase A, glutamyl peptidase, Ca2+-activated glutamate aminopeptidase, membrane aminopeptidase II, antigen BP-1/6C3 of mouse B lymphocytes, L-aspartate aminopeptidase, angiotensinase A2) is an enzyme encoded by the gene. Glutamyl aminopeptidase has also recently been designated CD249 (cluster of differentiation 249).RGD motifInterbeat interval: Interbeat interval is a scientific term used in the study of the mammalian heart.Blood vessel: The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body. There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingNephrectomyProximal convoluted tubule: The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.OmapatrilatNew Zealand rabbitUrinary index: The urinary indices are the fractional sodium excretion (FENa) index and the renal failure index (RFI).ProteinuriaEndothelial activation: Endothelial activation is a proinflammatory and procoagulant state of the endothelial cells lining the lumen of blood vessels. It is most characterized by an increase in interactions with white blood cells (leukocytes), and it is associated with the early states of atherosclerosis and sepsis, among others.Podocin: Podocin is a protein component of the filtration slits of podocytes. Glomerular capillary endothelial cells, the glomerular basement membrane and the filtration slits function as the filtration barrier of the kidney glomerulus.Zona glomerulosa: The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is the most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex, lying directly beneath the renal capsule. Its cells are ovoid and arranged in clusters or arches (glomus is Latin for "ball").Achy Breaky HeartCalcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Kinin–kallikrein system: The kinin–kallikrein system or simply kinin system is a poorly understood hormonal system with limited available research. It consists of blood proteins that play a role in inflammation, blood pressure control, coagulation and pain.
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