YjdF RNA motifMT-RNR2: Mitochondrially encoded 16S RNA (often abbreviated as 16S) is a mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that in humans is encoded by the MT-RNR2 gene. The MT-RNR2 gene also encodes the Humanin polypeptide that has been the target of Alzheimer's disease research.Transfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.T-box leaderCore enzyme: A core enzyme consists of the subunits of an enzyme that are needed for catalytic activity, as in the core enzyme RNA polymerase.Genetics: Analysis & Principles, 3rd Edition.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Mycovirus: Mycoviruses (ancient Greek μύκης mykes: fungus and Latin virus) are viruses that infect fungi. The majority of mycoviruses have double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes and isometric particles, but approximately 30% have positive sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) genomes.RNAi-Based Identification System and interference of Specific Cancer Cells: A “classifier” was created to classify cells by identifying specific characteristics of Cervical Cancer. These characteristics were consistent with HeLa cells, which served as the target cell line for cell death.Horizontal gene transfer in evolutionEmbryo transfer: Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. This technique (which is often used in connection with in vitro fertilization (IVF)), may be used in humans or in animals, in which situations the goals may vary.RNA interference: RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression, typically by causing the destruction of specific mRNA molecules. Historically, it was known by other names, including co-suppression, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), and quelling.Hairpin ribozymeTranscription preinitiation complex: The preinitiation complex (abbreviated PIC) is a large complex of proteins that is necessary for the transcription of protein-coding genes in eukaryotes (+archaea). The preinitiation complex helps position RNA polymerase II over gene transcription start sites, denatures the DNA, and positions the DNA in the RNA polymerase II active site for transcription.Cryptic unstable transcript: Cryptic Unstable Transcripts (CUTs) are a subset of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are produced from intergenic and intragenic regions. CUTs were first observed in S.Masayori Inouye: Masayori Inouye is a Japanese biochemist who, along with his team, discovered natural antisense RNA.Armitage–Doll multistage model of carcinogenesis: The Armitage–Doll model is a statistical model of carcinogenesis, proposed in 1954 by Peter Armitage and Richard Doll, which suggested that a sequence of multiple distinct genetic events preceded the onset of cancer. The original paper has recently been reprinted with a set of commentary articles.Coles PhillipsSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Nucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.U6 spliceosomal RNASingle-molecule FRET: Single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (or smFRET) is a biophysical technique used to measure distances at the 1-10 nanometer scale in single molecules, typically biomolecules. It is an application of FRET wherein a single donor and acceptor FRET pairs are excited and detected.Dark matter halo: A dark matter halo is a hypothetical component of a galaxy that envelops the galactic disc and extends well beyond the edge of the visible galaxy. The halo's mass dominates the total mass.Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein: Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PCTP) also known as StAR-related lipid transfer domain protein 2 (STARD2) is a specific intracellular phospholipid binding protein that can transfer phosphatidylcholine between different membranes in the cytosol.Multiple cloning site: A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Transfer factor: Transfer factors are essentially small immune messenger molecules that are produced by all higher organisms. They are an ancient part of the immune system and represent "an archaic dialect in the language of cells.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.DExD/H box proteins: DEAD box, DEAH, and the Ski families of proteins are all referred to as DExD/H box proteins. They are all quite distinct from one another and there is not one protein that belongs to more than one of these families.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Electron transfer: Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron moves from an atom or a chemical species (e.g.Reaction coordinateDNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Pes anserinus (leg): Pes anserinus ("goose foot") refers to the conjoined tendons of three muscles that insert onto the anteromedial (front and inside) surface of the proximal extremity of the tibia. The muscles are the sartorius, gracilis and semitendinosus.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.RNA-binding protein database: The RNA-binding Proteins Database (RBPDB) is a biological database of RNA-binding protein specificities that includes experimental observations of RNA-binding sites. The experimental results included are both in vitro and in vivo from primary literature.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Translational regulation: Translational regulation refers to the control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA. The corresponding mechanisms are primarily targeted on the control of ribosome recruitment on the initiation codon, but can also involve modulation of the elongation or termination of protein synthesis.Lactis-leu-phe leader RNA motifSatellite (biology): A satellite is a subviral agent composed of nucleic acid that depends on the co-infection of a host cell with a helper or master virus for its replication. When a satellite encodes the coat protein in which its nucleic acid is encapsidated it is referred to as a satellite virus.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.GC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.Ribonuclease T2: Ribonuclease T2 (, ribonuclease II, base-non-specific ribonuclease, nonbase-specific RNase, RNase (non-base specific), non-base specific ribonuclease, nonspecific RNase, RNase Ms, RNase M, RNase II, Escherichia coli ribonuclease II, ribonucleate nucleotido-2'-transferase (cyclizing), acid ribonuclease, RNAase CL, Escherichia coli ribonuclease I' ribonuclease PP2, ribonuclease N2, ribonuclease M, acid RNase, ribonnuclease (non-base specific), ribonuclease (non-base specific), RNase T2, ribonuclease PP3, ribonucleate 3'-oligonucleotide hydrolase, ribonuclease U4) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionFERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Exonic splicing enhancer: In molecular biology, an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) is a DNA sequence motif consisting of 6 bases within an exon that directs, or enhances, accurate splicing of heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) or pre-mRNA into messenger RNA (mRNA).
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