F1 hybrid: An F1 hybrid (or filial 1 hybrid) is the first filial generation of offspring of distinctly different parental types. F1 hybrids are used in genetics, and in selective breeding, where it may appear as F1 crossbreed.PollenFlower box: __NOTOC__Cypripedium irapeanum: The Irapeao's Cypripedium or Pelican Orchid (Cypripedium irapeanum) is a species of orchid. It has a widespread distribution from the central Mexico states of Sinaloa and Durango south to Guatemala and Honduras.List of diseases of the honey bee: Diseases of the honey bee or abnormal hive conditions include:Sisyrinchium platense: Sisyrinchium platense is a species of flowering plant in the Iridaceae family. Native from the Pampas region of South America (Bolivia, Peru, northern Argentina, southern Brazil), they are found growing in fertile and moist soils.AmborellaReproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Tomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.Thief of ThievesErythronium japonicum: Katakuri (Erythronium japonicum; ) is a pink-flowered species trout lily, belonging to the Lily family and native to Japan, Korea, the Russian Far East (Sakhalin Island, Kuril Islands) and northeastern China (Jilin and Liaoning).Flora of China v 24 p 126Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families It is a spring ephemeral, blooming April–June in woodlands.Newton metre: The newton metre is a unit of torque (also called "moment") in the SI system. The symbolic form is N m or N·m.Rakiura (genus): Rakiura is a genus of Trichoptera (caddisfly). The genus contains only one species, R.Indeterminacy in concurrent computation: Indeterminacy in concurrent computation is concerned with the effects of indeterminacy in concurrent computation.Heteropterys: Heteropterys is a genus in the Malpighiaceae, a family of about 75 genera of flowering plants in the order Malpighiales. Heteropterys comprises over 140 species of woody vines, shrubs, and small trees found in the New World tropics and subtropics from northern Mexico and the West Indies to northern Argentina and southeastern Brazil.Bennettites: Bennettites refers to an extinct genus of the order Bennettitales.Simon Mitchell: Simon Mitchell (born 1958) is a New Zealand physician specialising in occupational medicine, hyperbaric medicine and anesthesiology. Trained in medicine, Mitchell was awarded a PhD for his work on neuroprotection from embolic brain injury.Mountaineer Wind Energy Center: Mountaineer Wind Energy Center is a wind farm on Backbone Mountain in Preston and Tucker counties in the U.S.GentianaceaeFruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Yucca schidigeraJuniperus chinensis 'Shimpaku': Juniperus chinensis 'Shimpaku' (the shimpaku juniper) is a dwarf, irregular vase-shaped form of the Chinese juniper, Juniperus chinensis. Originally native to Japan, they were first collected in the 1850s in Japan.Stenocereus eruca: Stenocereus eruca, commonly known as creeping devil, is a member of the family Cactaceae. It is one of the most distinctive cacti, a member of the relatively small genus Stenocereus.EcosystemArrabidaea chica: Arrabidaea chica (Puca panga, Chica, Crajiru, Cricket-vine; Portuguese common name Crajirú) is a medicinal plant in the Bignoniaceae family, also used for cosmetics. The leaves are source of chica (dye).Triodanis perfoliata: Triodanis perfoliata, the Clasping Venus's Looking Glass, is a flowering plant belonging to the family Campanulaceae. It is an annual herb native to North and South America, the natural range extending from Canada to Argentina.Mercurialis annua: Mercurialis annua is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family known by the common name annual mercury. It is native to Europe, North Africa, and the Middle EastKew World Checklist of Selected Plant FamiliesAltervista Flora Italiana, Mercorella comune, ortiga muerta, urtiga-morta, Einjähriges Bingelkraut, mercuriale annuelle, Annual Mercury, Mercurialis annua L.Polistes dominula: The European paper wasp (Polistes dominula, often misspelled as dominulus) is one of the more common and well-known species of social wasps in the genus Polistes. Its diet is more diverse than that of most Polistes species (many genera of insects versus mainly caterpillars in other Polistes), making it superior over many others during the shortage of resources.Monotropa hypopitys: Monotropa hypopitys — called Dutchman's pipe, false beech-drops, pinesap, or yellow bird's-nest — is a herbaceous perennial plant, formerly classified in the families Monotropaceae or Pyrolaceae, but now included within the subfamily Monotropoideae of the blueberry family (Ericaceae). It is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, and is scarce or rare in many areas.Deforestation in Borneo: Borneo, the third largest island in the world, divided between Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei, was once covered with dense rainforests, but along with its tropical lowland and highland forests, there has been extensive deforestation since the 1960s, as the native economies of the region experienced rapid industrialisation. In the 1980s and 1990s the forests of Borneo underwent a dramatic transition.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Grevillea robustaAcokanthera: Acokanthera is a genus of flowering plants in the family Apocynaceae. It comprises 5 species and is generally restricted to Africa, although Acokanthera schimperi also occurs in Yemen.Aphelandra: Aphelandra is a genus of about 170 species of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas.Pyrus cordataSpatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Myrmecophyte: Myrmecophyte (mər′mek•ə‚fīt; literally "ant-plant") is a plant that lives in a mutualistic association with a colony of ants. There are over 100 different genera of myrmecophytes.Bird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Arum type: Arum-type refers to the morphology of fungal hyphae living in, or around plant root cells.Ophiorrhiza: Ophiorrhiza is a genus of flowering plants in the coffee (Rubiaceae) family. Species of the genus contain camptothecin, an alkaloid used to make chemotherapeutic agents.Pittosporum tobira: Pittosporum tobira is a species of flowering plant in the Pittosporum family known by several common names, including Japanese pittosporum, Japanese mock-orange and Japanese cheesewood. It is native to Japan, China, and Korea, but it is used throughout the world as an ornamental plant in landscaping and as cut foliage.Organic farming and biodiversity: The effect of organic farming has been a subject of interest for researchers. Theory suggests that organic farming practices, which exclude the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers, would be beneficial for biodiversity, and this has proven true.TrypophobiaTCP protein domain: In molecular biology, the protein domain TCP is actually a family of transcription factors named after: teosinte branched 1 (tb1, Zea mays (Maize)), cycloidea (cyc) (Antirrhinum majus) (Garden snapdragon) and PCF in rice (Oryza sativa).Plant breedingCreamed honey: Creamed honey is honey that has been processed to control crystallization. Creamed honey contains a large number of small crystals, which prevent the formation of larger crystals that can occur in unprocessed honey.Rosmarinic acidTibouchina semidecandra: Tibouchina semidecandra, the princess flower, glory bush, or lasiandra, is a sprawling, evergreen shrub or small ornamental tree native to Brazil and ranges from 10 to 15 feet (20 feet with proper training) in height. It can be trimmed to any size and still put on a vivid, year-long flower display.Impatiens denisonii: Impatiens denisonii is a scapigerous herb species of the Balsaminaceae family, which is found only in the Western Ghats in South India. It is among the rarest of the eighteen Impatiens speciesDaphne gnidium: Daphne gnidium (commonly known as the flax-leaved daphne) is a poisonous evergreen shrub from the Mediterranean region with narrow, dense dark-green foliage and white fragrant flowers.Inbreeding depression: Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population biological fitness refers to its ability to survive and reproduce itself.Pepsi Wild Cherry: Pepsi Wild Cherry is a cherry-flavored cola first introduced in 1988 by PepsiCo as a replacement for Cherry Cola Slice, introduced as part of the line in 1986. A sugar-free version is also available, with zero calories, named Diet Pepsi Wild Cherry.Ficus deltoidea: Ficus deltoidea, commonly known as mistletoe fig (Mas Cotek in Malaysian or สาลิกาลิ้นทอง in Thai) is a large shrub or small tree species native to Southeast Asia, and widely naturalized in other parts of the world.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Sagittaria secundifolia: Sagittaria secundifolia (Kral's water plantain, Little River arrowhead) is an aquatic plant, growing on or below the water, on rocky creek beds and nearby slopes. It is found only along the Little River of Alabama, and is endangered.Pith: 250px|right|thumb|[[Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). Scale in mm.Macrozamia communisAlliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.StratiotesSelaginella lepidophylla: Selaginella lepidophylla (syn. Lycopodium lepidophyllum) is a species of desert plant in the spikemoss family (Selaginellaceae).Silene undulataProtocarnivorous plant: A protocarnivorous plant (sometimes also paracarnivorous, subcarnivorous, or borderline carnivore), according to some definitions, traps and kills insects or other animals but lacks the ability to either directly digest or absorb nutrients from its prey like a carnivorous plant. The morphological adaptations such as sticky trichomes or pitfall traps of protocarnivorous plants parallel the trap structures of confirmed carnivorous plants.Southern corn leaf blight: Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is a fungal disease of maize caused by the plant pathogen Bipolaris maydis (also known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus in its teleomorph state).Larch sawfly: The larch sawfly (Pristiphora erichsonii) is a species of sawfly. The adult sawfly resembles a black wasp, is about ½ inch in length with a thick waist and has brown to orangish markings on the abdomen.Squamosa promoter binding protein: The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SBP or SPL) family of transcription factors are defined by a plant-specific DNA-binding domain. The founding member of the family was identified based on its specific in vitro binding to the promoter of the snapdragon SQUAMOSA gene.Biological dispersalAlocasia brisbanensis: Alocasia brisbanensis is a species of plant in the family Araceae. Its common name is native lily or cunjevoi (the latter term also refers to a marine animal).Lilium longiflorum: Lilium longiflorum (Japanese: テッポウユリ, Teppouyuri), often called the Easter lily, is a plant endemic to the Ryukyu Islands (Japan). Lilium formosana, a closely related species from Taiwan, has been treated as a variety of Easter lily in the past.Chrysomya albiceps: Chrysomya albiceps is a species belonging to the blow fly family, Calliphoridae. It is of great medical and sanitary importance, being associated with myiasis in Africa and America although it plays a more significant role as a predator of other dipteran larvae.Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area: Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area (French, Eau Agriculture Et Sante Et Milieu Tropical (E.A.Sooty blotch and flyspeck: Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) or 'apple summer disease' is a plant disease caused by a complex of saprophytic fungi which colonize the epicuticular wax layer of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).Imbibition: Imbibition is a special type of diffusion when water is absorbed by solids-colloids-causing them to enormously increase in volume. The classical examples of imbibition are absorption of water by seeds and dry wood.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Sago: Sago is a starch extracted from the spongy centre, or pith, of various tropical palm stems, especially Metroxylon sagu. It is a major staple food for the lowland peoples of New Guinea and the Moluccas, where it is called saksak, rabia and sagu.Passiflora edulisChemical defense: Chemical defense is the use of chemical compounds by plants and animals to deter herbivory and predation. Chemical defenses can also be used in competitive interactions to prevent overgrowth or maintain spatial dominance.Paraffin Safety Association of Southern Africa: Paraffin Safety Association of Southern AfricaAdalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Ralph Gretzmacher: Ralph Gretzmacher is an Austrian scientist, professor of botany, zoology and an expert on tropical and subtropic agronomy.Meramec Conservation AreaCoffea: Coffea is a genus of flowering plants whose seeds, called coffee beans, are used to make coffee. It is a member of the family Rubiaceae.Heath beekeeping: Heath beekeeping () was a specialist form of beekeeping, which was intensively practised by beekeepers on the Lüneburg Heath from the Middle Ages until the 19th century, but which is now very rarely encountered. It was also referred to as Lüneburger Schwarmbienenzucht (Lüneburg honey bee breeding) Lüneburger Heideimkerei (Lüneburg Heath beekeeping) or Lüneburger Korbimkerei (Lüneburg basket beekeeping).Amelanchier alnifolia: Amelanchier alnifolia, the saskatoon, Pacific serviceberry, western serviceberry, alder-leaf shadbush, dwarf shadbush, chuckley pear, or western juneberry,Germplasm Resources Information Network: Amelanchier alnifolia is a shrub with edible berry-like fruit, native to North America from Alaska across most of western Canada and in the western and north-central United States. Historically, it was also called pigeon berry.Natural Park of El FondoPyrites Island: Pyrites Island () is the largest of three small islands lying northeast of Gam Point and forming the east side of Esther Harbor, off the north coast of King George Island in the South Shetland Islands. In 1913–14, the rocky extremity of Gam Point and the adjoining islands to the northwest and southeast were named Esther, Pyritis (sic) or Pyritic Islands by Scottish geologist David Ferguson, who reported they were composed of pyrites and vein quartz.