Cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit family: In molecular biology, the cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit family is a family of proteins consisting of the regulatory subunits of cyclin-dependent protein kinases.Phosphatidylinositol phosphatePhosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs) are a family of Ser/Thr-protein kinases with sequence similarity to phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3Ks).PhosphatidylinositolSerine/threonine-specific protein kinasePhosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases: Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPK) are kinases that phosphorylate the phosphoinositides PtdInsP and PtdInsP2 that are derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns). It has been found that PtdIns is only phosphorylated on three (3,4,5) of its five hydroxyl groups, possibly because D-2 and D-6 hydroxyl groups cannot be phosphorylated because of steric hindrance.Kinome: In molecular biology, the kinome of an organism is the set of protein kinases in its genome. Kinases are enzymes that catalyze phosphorylation reactions (of amino acids) and fall into several groups and families, e.MorpholineMTORC2: mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2) is a protein complex that regulates cellular metabolism as well as the cytoskeleton. It is defined by the interaction of mTOR and the rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR (RICTOR), and also includes GβL, mammalian stress-activated protein kinase interacting protein 1 (mSIN1), as well as Protor 1/2, DEPTOR, and TTI1 and TEL2.Hyperphosphorylation: Hyperphosphorylation occurs when a biochemical with multiple phosphorylation sites is fully saturated. Hyperphosphorylation is one of the signalling mechanisms used by the cell to regulate mitosis.Src family kinase: Src family kinase is a family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases that includes nine members: Src, Yes, Fyn, and Fgr, forming the SrcA subfamily, Lck, Hck, Blk, and Lyn in the SrcB subfamily, and Frk in its own subfamily. Frk has homologs in invertebrates such as flies and worms, and Src homologs exist in organisms as diverse as unicellular choanoflagellates, but the SrcA and SrcB subfamilies are specific to vertebrates.PHLPP: The PHLPP isoforms (PH domain and Leucine rich repeat Protein Phosphatases) are a pair of protein phosphatases, PHLPP1 and PHLPP2, that are important regulators of Akt serine-threonine kinases (Akt1, Akt2, Akt3) and conventional/novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. PHLPP may act as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer due to its ability to block growth factor-induced signaling in cancer cells.Tyrosine-kinase inhibitor: A tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes responsible for the activation of many proteins by signal transduction cascades.Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (also known as MAP2K, MEK, MAPKK) is a kinase enzyme which phosphorylates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK).C-Jun N-terminal kinases: c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), were originally identified as kinases that bind and phosphorylate c-Jun on Ser-63 and Ser-73 within its transcriptional activation domain. They belong to the mitogen-activated protein kinase family, and are responsive to stress stimuli, such as cytokines, ultraviolet irradiation, heat shock, and osmotic shock.Extracellular signal-regulated kinases: In molecular biology, extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) or classical MAP kinases are widely expressed protein kinase intracellular signalling molecules that are involved in functions including the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. Many different stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, virus infection, ligands for heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors, transforming agents, and carcinogens, activate the ERK pathway.Phosphoprotein: A phosphoprotein is a protein that is posttranslationally modified by the attachment of either a single phosphate group, or a complex molecule such as 5'-phospho-DNA, through a phosphate group. The target amino acid is usually serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues (mostly in eukaryotes), or aspartic acid or histidine residues (mostly in prokaryotes).Isozyme: Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as Multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction. These enzymes usually display different kinetic parameters (e.INPP5E: 72 kDa inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, also known as phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase or Pharbin, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the INPP5E gene.L-serine-phosphatidylethanolamine phosphatidyltransferase: L-serine-phosphatidylethanolamine phosphatidyltransferase (, phosphatidylserine synthase 2, serine-exchange enzyme II, PTDSS2 (gene)) is an enzyme with system name L-1-phosphatidylethanolamine:L-serine phosphatidyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".PinitolColes PhillipsProximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Non-receptor tyrosine kinase: Non-receptor tyrosine kinases (nRTKs) are cytoplasmic enzymes that are responsible for catalysing the transfer of a phosphate group from a nucleoside triphosphate donor, such as ATP, to tyrosine residues in proteins. Non-receptor tyrosine kinases are a subgroup of protein family tyrosine kinases, enzymes that can transfer the phosphate group from ATP to a tyrosine residue of a protein (phosphorylation).Karl WallendaGlycogen synthase kinase: Glycogen synthase kinase is an enzyme.Cell membraneCyclin-dependent kinase complex: A cyclin-dependent kinase complex (CDKC, cyclin-CDK) is a protein complex formed by the association of an inactive catalytic subunit of a protein kinase, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), with a regulatory subunit, cyclin.Malumbres M, Barbacid M.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Related to receptor tyrosine kinase: The related to receptor tyrosine kinase (RYK) gene encodes the protein Ryk.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.PhospholipidCreatine kinaseCCDC90B: Coiled coil domain containing 90B, also known as CCDC90B, is a protein encoded by the CCDC90B gene.Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Protein kinase R: Protein kinase RNA-activated also known as protein kinase R (PKR), interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, or eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2 (EIF2AK2) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the EIF2AK2 gene.Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor: A phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor (PI3K inhibitor) is class of medical drug that functions by inhibiting one or more of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase enzymes, which are part of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, an important signalling pathway for many cellular functions such as growth control, metabolism and translation initiation. Within this pathway there are many components, inhibition of which may result in tumor suppression.Hippo signaling pathway: The Hippo signaling pathway, also known as the Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH) pathway, controls organ size in animals through the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. The pathway takes its name from one of its key signaling components—the protein kinase Hippo (Hpo).Phosphotransferase: Phosphotransferases are a category of enzymes (EC number 2.7) that catalyze phosphorylation reactions.Gluconeogenesis: Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Insulin receptor substrate: Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) is an important ligand in the insulin response of human cells.Diacylglycerol kinase (CTP dependent): Diacylglycerol kinase (CTP dependent) (, DAG kinase, CTP-dependent diacylglycerol kinase, diglyceride kinase) is an enzyme with system name CTP:1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphotransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionInsulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Thymidine kinaseInositol phosphateRho-associated protein kinase: Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) is a kinase belonging to the AGC (PKA/ PKG/PKC) family of serine-threonine kinases. It is involved mainly in regulating the shape and movement of cells by acting on the cytoskeleton.Specificity constant: In the field of biochemistry, the specificity constant (also called kinetic efficiency or k_{cat}/K_{M}), is a measure of how efficiently an enzyme converts substrates into products. A comparison of specificity constants can also be used as a measure of the preference of an enzyme for different substrates (i.IKBKG: NF-kappa-B essential modulator (NEMO) also known as inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit gamma (IKK-γ) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IKBKG gene. NEMO is a subunit of the IκB kinase complex that activates NF-κB.Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein: Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PCTP) also known as StAR-related lipid transfer domain protein 2 (STARD2) is a specific intracellular phospholipid binding protein that can transfer phosphatidylcholine between different membranes in the cytosol.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Phosphotyrosine-binding domainMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Membrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.