Endoneurium: The endoneurium (also called endoneurial channel, endoneurial sheath, endoneurial tube, or Henle's sheath) is a layer of delicate connective tissue around the myelin sheath of each myelinated nerve fiber. Its component cells are called endoneurial cells.Neurotmesis: Neurotmesis (in Greek tmesis signifies "to cut") is part of Seddon's classification scheme used to classify nerve damage. It is the most serious nerve injury in the scheme.Sciatic nerve: The sciatic nerve (; also called ischiadic nerve, ischiatic nerve) is a large nerve in humans and other animals. It begins in the lower back and runs through the buttock and down the lower limb.Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumorNeuroregeneration: Neuroregeneration refers to the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells or cell products. Such mechanisms may include generation of new neurons, glia, axons, myelin, or synapses.VincristineBobby Crush: Bobby Crush (born Robert Nicholas Crush, 23 March 1954) is an English pianist, songwriter, actor and television presenter, originally from Leyton in East London.Nerve fiber layer: The retinal nerve fiber layer (nerve fiber layer, stratum opticum, RNFL) is formed by the expansion of the fibers of the optic nerve; it is thickest near the porus opticus, gradually diminishing toward the ora serrata.Nerve biopsyCompound muscle action potential: The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) or compound motor action potential is an electromyography investigation (electrical study of muscle function).Nerve blockMedian nerve: The median nerve is a nerve in humans and other animals in the upper limb. It is one of the five main nerves originating from the brachial plexus.Martin-Gruber Anastomosis: The Martin-Gruber Anastomosis (or Martin-Gruber Connection) is a communicating nerve branch between the median nerve and the ulnar nerve in the forearm. It is the most common anastomotic anomaly that occurs between these two nerves.Optic nerve tumor: An optic nerve melanocytoma is a tumor made up of melanocytes and melanin. These tumors are typically a benign; they can grow, but rarely transform into a malignancy.Superior cluneal nerves: The superior cluneal nerves innervate the skin of the upper part of the buttocks. They are the terminal ends of lateral rami of the posterior rami of lumbar spinal nerves (L1, 2, 3).Axon guidance: Axon guidance (also called axon pathfinding) is a subfield of neural development concerning the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Axons often follow very precise paths in the nervous system, and how they manage to find their way so accurately is being researched.Solitary neurofibroma: A solitary neurofibroma (also known as a "Solitary nerve sheath tumor," and "Sporadic neurofibroma") may be 2 to 20mm in diameter, is soft, flaccid, and pinkish-white, and frequently this soft small tumor can be invaginated, as if through a ring in the skin by pressure with the finger, a maneuver called "button-holing."James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Remyelination: Remyelination is the process of propagating oligodendrocyte precursor cells to form oligodendrocytes to create new myelin sheaths on demyelinated axons in the CNS. This is a process naturally regulated in the body and tends to be very efficient in a healthy CNS.Electroneuronography: Electroneuronography or electroneurography (ENoG) is a neurological non-invasive test that was first described by Esslen and Fisch in 1979 and is used to examine the integrity and conductivity of a peripheral nerve. It consists of a brief electrical stimulation of the nerve in one point underneath the skin, and at the same time recording the electrical activity (compound action potentials) at another point of the nerve's trajectory in the body.Sacral anterior root stimulator: An implantable medical device enabling patients with a spinal cord lesion to empty their bladders.Improved Samba MahsuriNeurofibromatosis type 4: Neurofibromatosis type 4 (also known as "Neurofibromatosis variant type") resembles von Recklinghausen's disease, but also presents with cutaneous neurofibromas.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Neuropathic painAntoni Jan GoetzWallerian degeneration: Wallerian degeneration is a process that results when a nerve fiber is cut or crushed, in which the part of the axon separated from the neuron's cell body degenerates distal to the injury.Trauma and Wallerian Degeneration, University of California, San Francisco This is also known as anterograde or orthograde degeneration.Triangular interval: The triangular interval (also known as the lateral triangular space,Photo at tufts.edu lower triangular space, and triceps hiatus) is a space found in the axilla.Axotomy: An axotomy is the cutting or otherwise severing of an axon. Derived from axo- (=axon) and -tomy (=surgery).Inferior longitudinal fasciculus: The inferior longitudinal fasciculus connects the temporal lobe and occipital lobe, running along the lateral walls of the inferior and posterior cornua of the lateral ventricle.Neuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.Diabetic neuropathyTrigeminovascular system: The trigeminovascular system consists of neurons in the trigeminal nerve that innervate cerebral blood vessels. It has been hypothesized that the trigeminovascular system may be involved in some types of headaches.Renshaw cell: Renshaw cells are inhibitory interneurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and are associated in two ways with an alpha motor neuron.Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Cranial nerve examinationHouse DividedAdvanced Pediatric Life Support: Advanced Pediatric Life Support (APLS) is a program created by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Emergency Physicians to teach health care providers how to take care of sick children.Myelin protein zero: Myelin protein zero (P0, MPZ) is a glycoprotein which in humans is encoded by the MPZ gene. P0 is a major structural component of the myelin sheath, and its deficiency due to various mutations in the MPZ gene is associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease and Dejerine–Sottas disease.Diaphragm pacing: == Introduction ==Neuroma: A neuroma (plural: neuromata or neuromas) is a growth or tumor of nerve tissue. Neuromas tend to be benign (i.Opioid-induced hyperalgesia: Opioid-induced hyperalgesia or opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity, also called paradoxical hyperalgesia is a phenomenon associated with the long term use of opioids such as morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone. Over time, individuals taking opioids can develop an increasing sensitivity to noxious stimuli, even evolving a painful response to previously non-noxious stimuli (allodynia).Klumpke paralysisInteroceptor: An interoceptor is a sensory receptor that detects stimulus within the body. Examples of stimuli that would be detected by interoceptors include blood pressureCampbell, Neil A.Saltatory conduction: Saltatory conduction (from the Latin saltare, to hop or leap) is the propagation of action potentials along myelinated axons from one node of Ranvier to the next node, increasing the conduction velocity of action potentials. The uninsulated nodes of Ranvier are the only places along the axon where ions are exchanged across the axon membrane, regenerating the action potential between regions of the axon that are insulated by myelin, unlike electrical conduction in a simple circuit.Demyelinating disease: -, |Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease: Charcot disease}}Esthesiometer: An esthesiometer (British spelling aesthesiometer) is a device for measuring the tactile sensitivity of the skin (or mouth, or eye, etc.).Reticulon: Reticulons (RTNs in vertebrates and reticulon-like proteins or RNTls in other eukaryotes) are a group of evolutionary conservative proteins residing predominantly in endoplasmic reticulum, primarily playing a role in promoting membrane curvature. In addition reticulons may play a role in nuclear pore complex formation, vesicle formation, and other processes yet to be defined.PolyneuropathyInferior alveolar nerve anaesthesia: Inferior alveolar nerve block (abbreviated to IANB, and also termed inferior alveolar nerve anesthesia or inferior dental block) is a nerve block technique which induces anesthesia (numbness) in the areas of the mouth and face innervated by one of the inferior alveolar nerves which are paired on the left and right side. These areas are the skin and mucous membranes of the lower lip, the skin of the chin, the lower teeth and the labial gingiva of the anterior teeth, all unilaterally to the midline of the side on which the block is administered.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Cats in the United States: Many different species of mammal can be classified as cats (felids) in the United States. These include domestic cat (both house cats and feral), of the species Felis catus; medium-sized wild cats from the genus Lynx; and big cats from the genera Puma and Panthera.Aging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.Cancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.Ventricular action potentialTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingLocal anesthetic: Local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected as well. Also, when it is used on specific nerve pathways (local anesthetic nerve block), paralysis (loss of muscle power) can be achieved as well.Branch of glossopharyngeal nerve to carotid sinus: The branch of glossopharyngeal nerve to the carotid sinus (Hering's nerve) is a small nerve in the neck, that innervates the carotid sinus and the carotid body.Nerve growth factor receptor: Nerve growth factor receptors are a group of growth factor receptors which specifically bind to neurotrophins.Pain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.Dermal equivalent: The dermal equivalent is an in vitro model of the dermal layer of skin. It is constructed by seeding dermal fibroblasts into a collagen gel.Electroanalgesia: Electroanalgesia is a form of analgesia, or pain relief, that uses electricity to ease pain. Electrical devices can be internal or external, at the site of pain (local) or delocalized throughout the whole body.
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