Bone destruction patterns in periodontal disease: In periodontal disease, not only does the bone that supports the teeth, known as alveolar bone, reduce in height in relation to the teeth, but the morphology of the remaining alveolar bone is altered.Carranza, FA: Bone Loss and Patterns of Bone Destruction.Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic disease: Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases is one of the seven categories of periodontitis as defined by the American Academy of Periodontology 1999 classification system. At least 16 systemic diseases have been linked to periodontitis.Desquamative gingivitisPocket reduction surgery: In dentistry, pocket reduction surgery is a periodontal surgery performed in order to reduce the probeable depth of the gingival sulcus (known as a periodontal pocket in disease) to allow for less plaque accumulation and greater access for hygiene. Reducing the depths of the periodontal pockets eliminates an environment that is hospitable for the more virulent periodontal pathogens.Porphyromonas gingivalis: Porphyromonas gingivalis belongs to the phylum Bacteroidetes and is a nonmotile, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, anaerobic, pathogenic bacterium. It forms black colonies on blood agar.Chronic periodontitis: Chronic periodontitis is a common disease of the oral cavity consisting of chronic inflammation of the periodontal tissues that is caused by accumulation of profuse amounts of dental plaque.Dental plaque: Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth. It appears as a white or pale yellow "slime layer", that is commonly found between the teeth and along the cervical margins.Tooth loss: Tooth loss is a process in which one or more teeth come loose and fall out. Tooth loss is normal for deciduous teeth (baby teeth), when they are replaced by a person's adult teeth.Franz Hein: Franz Hein (1892–1976) was a German scientist and artist.Aggressive periodontitis: Aggressive periodontitis describes a type of periodontal disease and includes two of the seven classifications of periodontitis:TD-1 RNA motif: The TD-1 RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure found only in the species Treponema denticola, at least among bacteria whose genomes were sequenced in 2007 when the RNA motif was identified. The T.Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) is a Gram-negative, facultative nonmotile, rod-shaped oral commensal often found in association with localized aggressive periodontitis, a severe infection of the periodontium, although it is also associated with nonoral infections. Its role in periodontitis was first discovered by Danish-born periodontist Jørgen Slots, a professor of dentistry and microbiology at the University of Southern California School of Dentistry.Fusobacterium nucleatum: Fusobacterium nucleatum is an oral bacterium, indigenous to the human oral cavity, that plays a role in periodontal disease. This organism is commonly recovered from different monomicrobial and mixed infections in humans and animals.Dental cariesUniversity of Connecticut Department of Periodontology: The Department of Periodontology is a division of the University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences. It carries out research and offers training for pre-doctoral and postgraduate students.Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitisGingival disease: A gingival disease is a disorder primarily affecting the gingiva.Treponema carateum: Treponema carateum is a species of spirochete bacteria in the genus Treponema.Toothbrush: The toothbrush is an oral hygiene instrument used to clean the teeth and gums that consists of a head of tightly clustered bristles mounted on a handle, which facilitates the cleansing of hard-to-reach areas of the mouth.Saliva testing: Saliva testing is a diagnostic technique that involves laboratory analysis of saliva to identify markers of endocrine, immunologic, inflammatory, infectious, and other types of conditions. Saliva is a useful biological fluid for assaying steroid hormones such as cortisol, genetic material like RNA, proteins such as enzymes and antibodies, and a variety of other substances, including natural metabolites, including saliva nitrite, a biomarker for nitric oxide status (see below for Cardiovascular Disease, Nitric Oxide: a salivary biomarker for cardio-protection).Bundle bone: Bundle bone is a histologic term for the portion of the bone of the alveolar process that surrounds teeth and into which the collagen fibers of the periodontal ligament are embedded.Araujo, M; Lindhe, J: The Edentulous Alveolar Ridge.ListerineDental Procedure Education System: The Dental Procedure Education System (DPES), is a web-based resource containing a collection of procedures from the dental disciplines. The procedures presented in DPES were developed by individual faculty members at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, in collaboration with a group of educational media and technology experts.ErtapenemJunctional epithelium: The junctional epithelium (JE) is that epithelium which lies at, and in health also defines, the base of the gingival sulcus. The probing depth of the gingival sulcus is measured by a calibrated periodontal probe.Periodontal diagnosis and classification: In dentistry, numerous types of classification schemes have been developed to describe the teeth and gum tissue in a way that categorizes various defects. All of these classification schemes combine to provide the periodontal diagnosis of the aforementioned tissues in their various states of health and disease.Actinomyces israelii: Actinomyces israelii is a species of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria within the Actinomyces. Known to live commensally on and within humans, A.Pasteurellaceae: The Pasteurellaceae comprise a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. Most members live as commensals on mucosal surfaces of birds and mammals, especially in the upper respiratory tract.Campylobacter rectus: Campylobacter rectus is a species of Campylobacter. It is implicated as a pathogen in chronic periodontitis, which can induce bone loss.Human tooth: The human teeth function in mechanically breaking down items of food by cutting and crushing them in preparation for swallowing and digestion. There are four different types of teeth, namely incisors, canines, molars and premolars.Filifactor: Filifactor, is a genus of bacteriae belonging to the Firmicutes.Trimeric autotransporter adhesin: In molecular biology, trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), are proteins found on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacteria use TAAs in order to infect their host cells via a process called cell adhesion.Furcation defect: In dentistry, a furcation defect is bone loss, usually a result of periodontal disease, affecting the base of the root trunk of a tooth where two or more roots meet (bifurcation or trifurcation). The extent and configuration of the defect are factors in both diagnosis and treatment planning.Veillonella parvula: Veillonella parvula is a bacterium in the genus Veillonella. It is a normal part of the oral flora but can be associated with diseases such as periodontitis and dental caries as well as various systemic infections.Prevotellaceae: The family Prevotellacae is composed of four genera.National J.HalitosisAntiseptic lavage: Antiseptic lavage is a means of washing, especially of a hollow organ, such as the stomach or lower bowel, with repeated injections of warm water mixed with an antiseptic or antifungal solution. Antiseptic lavages are commonly used as a treatment to pericoronitis of wisdom teeth.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Eikenella corrodens: Eikenella corrodens is a fastidious Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacillus. It was first identified by M.BiofilmRPTN: RPTN is a gene that encodes the protein repetin. Repetin is an extracellular epidermal matrix protein.Fusobacterium: Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, similar to Bacteroides. Individual cells are rod-shaped bacilli with pointed ends.Capnocytophaga canimorsus: Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a fastidious, slow-growing Gram-negative rod of the genus Capnocytophaga.Pers C, Gahrn-Hansen B, and Frederiksen W.Abfraction: Abfraction is a theoretical concept explaining a loss of tooth structure not caused by tooth decay (non-carious cervical lesions). It is suggested that these lesions are caused by forces placed on the teeth during biting, eating, chewing and grinding; the enamel, especially at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), undergoes large amounts of stress, causing micro fractures and tooth tissue loss.International Journal of Obesity: The International Journal of Obesity (abbreviated as IJO) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.Gingival margin: The free gingival margin is the interface between the sulcular epithelium and the epithelium of the oral cavity. This interface exists at the most coronal point of the gingiva, otherwise known as the crest of the marginal gingiva.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Trichomonas gallinae: The protozoan Trichomonas gallinae is a cosmopolitan parasite of pigeons and doves. Other birds such as domestic and wild turkeys, chickens, raptors (hawks, golden eagle, etc.Inflammation: Inflammation (Latin, [is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen]s, damaged cells, or irritants.