Cancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.Chronic painHypoalgesia: Hypoalgesia or hypalgesia denotes a decreased sensitivity to painful stimuli.Low back painPain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.Avijit Lahiri: Avijit Lahiri is a researcher in cardiology[http://www.journals.Pelvic congestion syndrome: Pelvic congestion syndrome (also known as pelvic vein incompetence) is a chronic medical condition in women caused by varicose veins in the lower abdomen. The condition causes chronic pain, often manifesting as a constant dull ache, which can be aggravated by standing.Thermal grill illusion: The thermal grill illusion is a sensory illusion originally demonstrated in 1896 by the Swedish physician Torsten Thunberg. The illusion is created by an interlaced grill of warm (e.Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain: The Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain is a quarterly Peer review-peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on chronic muscle and bone pain, including fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, and other types of musculoskeletal pain. It is published by Informa Healthcare.Compound analgesic: Compound analgesics are those with multiple active ingredients; they include many of the stronger prescription analgesics.Neuropathic painOpioid: Opioids are substances that act on the nervous system in a similar way to opiates such as morphine and codeine. In a medical context the term usually indicates medications that are artificially made rather than extracted from opium.Dry needling: Dry needling (Myofascial Trigger Point Dry Needlinghttp://www.ncbi.Opioid-induced hyperalgesia: Opioid-induced hyperalgesia or opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity, also called paradoxical hyperalgesia is a phenomenon associated with the long term use of opioids such as morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone. Over time, individuals taking opioids can develop an increasing sensitivity to noxious stimuli, even evolving a painful response to previously non-noxious stimuli (allodynia).Rachel Morris (cyclist): Rachel Morris (born on 25 April 1979) is a British Paralympic handcyclist who won a gold medal at the 2008 Summer Paralympics. She lost both her legs to Complex regional pain syndrome and cycles, in part, to manage the pain.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Visceral pain: Visceral pain is pain that results from the activation of nociceptors of the thoracic, pelvic, or abdominal viscera (organs). Visceral structures are highly sensitive to distension (stretch), ischemia and inflammation, but relatively insensitive to other stimuli that normally evoke pain such as cutting or burning.Preventive analgesia: Preventive analgesia is a practice aimed at reducing short- and long-term post-surgery pain. Activity in the body's pain signalling system during surgery produces "sensitization"; that is, it increases the intensity of post-operative pain.Nociceptor: A nociceptor is a sensory neuron (nerve cell) that responds to potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to the spinal cord and brain. This process, called nociception, usually causes the perception of pain.Fibromyalgia: – FibromyalgiaClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Local anesthetic: Local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected as well. Also, when it is used on specific nerve pathways (local anesthetic nerve block), paralysis (loss of muscle power) can be achieved as well.International Disability and Development Consortium: The International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) is a global consortium of disability and development related organisations. The aim of IDDC is to promote inclusive development internationally, with a special focus on promoting human rights for all disabled people living in economically poor communities in lower and middle-income countries.Morphia (disambiguation): Morphia, also called morphine, is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug.Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.The Alligator's Toothache: The Alligator's Toothache is a 1962 children's picture book written and illustrated by Marguerite Dorian. It tells the tale of an alligator called Alli and his child-friendly experiences with a painful tooth and a dentist's surgery.Lidocaine: lignocaineNerve blockTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingTime-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Select MedicalSuperior cluneal nerves: The superior cluneal nerves innervate the skin of the upper part of the buttocks. They are the terminal ends of lateral rami of the posterior rami of lumbar spinal nerves (L1, 2, 3).Phantom painMicrovascular decompression: Microvascular decompression (MVD), also known as the Jannetta procedure,http://neurosurgery.ucsf.Knee pain: Knee pain is a common complaint for many people. There are several factors that can cause knee pain.RadiculopathyVincristineNeuromere: Neuromeres are morphologically or molecularly defined transient segments of the early developing brain. Rhombomeres are such segments that make up the rhombencephalon or hindbrain.Electroanalgesia: Electroanalgesia is a form of analgesia, or pain relief, that uses electricity to ease pain. Electrical devices can be internal or external, at the site of pain (local) or delocalized throughout the whole body.Lumbar disc disease: Lumbar disc disease is the drying out of the spongy interior matrix of an intervertebral disc in the spine. Many physicians and patients use the term lumbar disc disease to encompass several different causes of back pain or sciatica.Oxycodone/paracetamolDicycloverineBupivacaineCelecoxibFishpaper: Fish paper or fishpaper is a strong, flexible, fibrous dielectric paper. It resists moderate heat and mechanical injury, and is often used for wrapping coils and insulating stove-top parts.Osteoarthritis Research Society International: The Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) is a non-profit scientific organization.OARSI.International Classification of Headache Disorders: The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) is a detailed hierarchical classification of all headache-related disorders published by the International Headache Society. It is considered the official classification of headaches by the World Health Organization, and, in 1992, was incorporated into the 10th edition of their International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10).Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.Exercise prescription software: Exercise prescription software is a branch of computer software designed to aid in the construction of exercise programmes or regimes for patients who require some kind of ongoing rehabilitation.AcupunctureHyperintensityOhmefentanylFacet joint injection: Facet joint injections are used to alleviate symptoms of facet joint syndrome.Facet Joint SyndromeHypoesthesiaHypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.