Optic neuropathyOptic nerve tumor: An optic nerve melanocytoma is a tumor made up of melanocytes and melanin. These tumors are typically a benign; they can grow, but rarely transform into a malignancy.Hagemoser–Weinstein–Bresnick syndrome: Hagemoser–Weinstein–Bresnick syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder first described by Hagemoser et al. in 1989.Diabetic neuropathyOptic disc: The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye. BecauseBerk–Tabatznik syndrome: Berk–Tabatznik syndrome is a condition with an unknown cause that shows symptoms of short stature, congenital optic atrophy and brachytelephalangy. This condition is extremely rare with only two cases being found.Optic neuritisVincristineHaplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy: Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN) are a group of neuropathies which are characterized by their impact upon both afferent and efferent neural communication. HMSN are characterized by non typical neural development, and degradation of neural tissue.Poul Kjer: Paul Kjer, Danish ophthalmologist, studied a condition in nineteen families that was characterized by infantile optic atrophy along with a dominant inheritance mode. In 1959, the condition was named Kjer's optic neuropathy in his honor.Sensory decussation: The sensory decussation or decussation of the lemniscus is a decussation or crossover of axons from the gracile nucleus and cuneate nucleus, which are responsible for fine touch, proprioception and two-point discrimination of the body. The fibres of this decussation are called the internal arcuate fibres and are found at the superior aspect of the closed medulla superior to the motor decussation.Meridian (perimetry, visual field): Meridian (plural: "meridians") is used in perimetry and in specifying visual fields. According to IPS Perimetry Standards 1978 (2002): "Perimetry is the measurement of [an observer's] visual functions ...LogMAR chart: A LogMAR chart comprises rows of letters and is used by ophthalmologists and vision scientists to estimate visual acuity. This chart was developed at the National Vision Research Institute of Australia in 1976, and is designed to enable a more accurate estimate of acuity as compared to other charts (e.PapilledemaNADH dehydrogenase: NADH dehydrogenase (, cytochrome c reductase, type 1 dehydrogenase, beta-NADH dehydrogenase dinucleotide, diaphorase, dihydrocodehydrogenase I dehydrogenase, dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase, diphosphopyridine diaphorase, DPNH diaphorase, NADH diaphorase, NADH hydrogenase, NADH oxidoreductase, NADH-menadione oxidoreductase, reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide diaphorase) is an enzyme with systematic name NADH:acceptor oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionOperation Eyesight Universal: Operation Eyesight Universal is a Canada-based international development organisation, founded in 1963. It works to prevent avoidable blindness and to cure blindness that is treatable.Infiltrative ophthalmopathy: Infiltrative ophthalmopathy is found in Graves disease and resembles exophthalmos, except that the blurry or double vision is acquired because of weakness in the ocular muscles of the eye. In addition, there is no known correlation with the patient's thyroid levels.Charles D. Phelps: Charles Dexter Phelps (September 16, 1937 – September 13, 1985) was a prominent American medical doctor, professor, and researcher in the field of ophthalmology. The clinical studies he oversaw contributed to significant advances in the scientific understanding and surgical and pharmacological treatment of glaucoma.Intraocular pressureSuperior orbital fissure: The superior orbital fissure is a foramen in the skull, although strictly it is more of a cleft, lying between the lesser and greater wings of the sphenoid bone.Blind People's Association: The Blind People’s Association (BPA) is an organisation in India which promotes comprehensive rehabilitation of persons with all categories of disabilities through education, training, employment, community based rehabilitation, integrated education, research, publications, human resource development and other innovative means.Nerve fiber layer: The retinal nerve fiber layer (nerve fiber layer, stratum opticum, RNFL) is formed by the expansion of the fibers of the optic nerve; it is thickest near the porus opticus, gradually diminishing toward the ora serrata.Plaque-forming unit: In virology, a plaque-forming unit (PFU) is a measure of the number of particles capable of forming plaques per unit volume, such as virus particles. It is a functional measurement rather than a measurement of the absolute quantity of particles: viral particles that are defective or which fail to infect their target cell will not produce a plaque and thus will not be counted.List of diseases (H): This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "H".Flashlight: A flashlight or torch in British English, is a portable hand-held electric light. Usually, the source of the light is a small incandescent light bulb or light-emitting diode (LED).Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary - About.com, a part of The New York Times Company.PolyneuropathyNerve biopsyOptic disc drusenMitochondrial diseaseAxon guidance: Axon guidance (also called axon pathfinding) is a subfield of neural development concerning the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Axons often follow very precise paths in the nervous system, and how they manage to find their way so accurately is being researched.Compound muscle action potential: The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) or compound motor action potential is an electromyography investigation (electrical study of muscle function).Retinal regeneration: Retinal regeneration deals with restoring retinal function to vertebrates so impaired.Reflected-wave switching: Reflected-wave switching is a signalling technique used in backplane computer buses such as PCI.Giant-cell arteritisCoherence theory: In physics, coherence theory is the study of optical effects arising from partially coherent light and radio sources. Partially coherent sources are sources where the coherence time or coherence length are limited by bandwidth, by thermal noise, or by other effect.Outline of photography: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to photography:Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease: Charcot disease}}Branch retinal artery occlusion: Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) is a rare retinal vascular disorder in which one of the branches of central retinal artery is obstructed.Spinal decompression: Spinal decompression is the relief of pressure on one or many pinched nerves (neural impingement) of the spinal column.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Avo PhotonicsScanning laser ophthalmoscopyPurtscher's retinopathy: Purtscher's retinopathy is a disease where part of the eye (retina) is damaged. Usually associated with severe head injuries, it may also occur with other types of trauma, such as long bone fractures, or with several non-traumatic systemic diseases.Circulus arteriosus major: Circulus arteriosus major, also called "major circulus arteriosus of iris" CIA or CIAM, is formed by anastomosis of the anterior ciliary arteries with the Long posterior ciliary arteries at the ciliary body. It supplies the iris, ciliary body and choroid.LevobetaxololGuiding Eyes for the Blind: Yorktown Heights, New YorkDiplopiaScotomaDemyelinating disease: -, |Point mutationNeuro-ophthalmology: Neuro-ophthalmology is an academically-oriented subspecialty that merges the fields of neurology and ophthalmology, often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system. Neuro-ophthalmologists initially complete a residency in either neurology or ophthalmology, then do a fellowship in the complementary field.Gene therapy for color blindness: Gene therapy for color blindness is an experimental gene therapy aiming to convert congenitally colorblind individuals to trichromats by introducing a photopigment gene that they lack. Though partial color blindness is considered only a mild disability and is controversial whether it is even a disorder, it is a condition that affects many people, particularly males.Homonymous hemianopsiaImbert-Fick law: The Imbert-Fick "law" was invented by Hans Goldmann (1899–1991) to give his newly marketed tonometer (with the help of the Haag-Streit Company) a quasi-scientific basis; it is mentioned in the ophthalmic and optometric literature, but not in any books of physics. According to Goldmann,Goldmann H.Serpiginous choroiditis: Serpiginous choroiditis, also known as geographic or helicoid choroidopathy, is an uncommon chronic progressive inflammatory disease affecting adult men and women equally in the second to seventh decades of life.North Bengal Medical CollegeMedian artery: The median artery is an artery that is occasionally found in humans and other animals.Endoneurium: The endoneurium (also called endoneurial channel, endoneurial sheath, endoneurial tube, or Henle's sheath) is a layer of delicate connective tissue around the myelin sheath of each myelinated nerve fiber. Its component cells are called endoneurial cells.Mitochondrion: The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek , , i.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Low vision assessment: Low vision is both a subspeciality and a condition. Optometrists and Ophthalmologists after their training may undergo further training in Low vision assessment and management.Optimax: Optimax is a UK-based laser eye treatment specialist which has 38 locations nationwide. Optimax was established as one of the first private clinics to offer laser eye surgery.Neuromyelitis opticaHyperintensitySymptoms and signs of Graves' disease: Virtually all the symptoms and signs of Graves' disease result from the direct and indirect effects of hyperthyroidism, with exceptions being Graves' ophthalmopathy, goitre and pretibial myxedema (which are caused by the autoimmune processes of Graves' disease). These clinical manifestations are dramatic and involve virtually every system in the body.ExophthalmosAcute limb ischaemiaMucocele: A mucocele is any dilatation (typically pathologic) with accumulation of mucus. Examples include: