Synaptic gating: Synaptic gating is the ability of neural circuits to gate inputs by either suppressing or facilitating specific synaptic activity. Selective inhibition of certain synapses has been studied thoroughly (see Gate theory of pain), and recent studies have supported the existence of permissively gated synaptic transmission.Cocaine intoxicationDopamine receptorDopamine reuptake inhibitor: A dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine by blocking the action of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Reuptake inhibition is achieved when extracellular dopamine not absorbed by the postsynaptic neuron is blocked from re-entering the presynaptic neuron.Reward system: The reward system is a group of neural structures that are critically involved in mediating the effects of reinforcement. A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior.Self-administration: Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to him-, her-, or itself. A clinical example of this is the subcutaneous "self-injection" of insulin by a diabetic patient.Substituted amphetamine: Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents. The compounds in this class span a variety of pharmacological subclasses, including stimulants, entactogens, hallucinogens, among others.Ventral tegmental area: The ventral tegmental area (VTA), (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain (mesencephalon). The VTA is the origin of the dopaminergic cell bodies of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system and is widely implicated in the drug and natural reward circuitry of the brain.Frontostriatal circuit: Frontostriatal circuits are neural pathways that connect frontal lobe regions with the basal ganglia (striatum) that mediate motor, cognitive, and behavioural functions within the brain. They receive inputs from dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic cell groups that modulate information processing.TalipexoleBenazeprilInformation hypothesis of conditioned reinforcementHSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromeBeta-Phenylmethamphetamine: β-Phenylmethamphetamine (N,α-dimethyl-β-phenyl-phenethylamine) is a potent and long lasting stimulant drug.Pharmazie 1973;28(10):677.HaloperidolTransactivation: In the context of gene regulation, transactivation is increased rate of gene expression triggered either by biological processes or by artificial means, through expressing an intermediate (transactivator) protein. In the context of receptor signaling, transactivation occurs when one or more receptors activates another; receptor transactivation may result from crosstalk of their signaling cascades.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Cue stick: A cue stick (or simply cue, more specifically pool cue, snooker cue, or billiards cue), is an item of sporting equipment essential to the games of pool, snooker and carom billiards. It is used to strike a ball, usually the .NafadotrideOlson's Extinction: Olson's Extinction was a mass extinction that occurred in the Early Guadalupian of the Permian period and which predated the Permian–Triassic extinction event.Conditioned place preference: Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a form of Pavlovian conditioning used to measure the motivational effects of objects or experiences. This paradigm can also be used to measure conditioned place aversion with an identical procedure involving aversive stimuli instead.Exercise addiction: An exercise addiction can have harmful consequences although it is not listed as a disorder in the latest revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). This type of addiction can be classified under a behavioral addiction in which a person’s behavior becomes obsessive, compulsive, and/or causes dysfunction in a person's life.AmisulprideSC-17599Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act: The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws developed the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act in 1934 due to the lack of restrictions in the Harrison Act of 1914. The act was a revenue-producing act and, while it provided penalties for violations, it did not give authority to the states to exercise police power regarding either seizure of drugs used in illicit trade or punishment of those responsible.Serotonergic cell groups: Serotonergic cell groups refer to collections of neurons in the central nervous system that have been demonstrated by histochemical fluorescence to contain the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Since they are for the most part localized to classical brainstem nuclei, particularly the raphe nuclei, they are more often referred to by the names of those nuclei than by the B1-9 nomenclature.Morphia (disambiguation): Morphia, also called morphine, is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug.Excitotoxicity: Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances. This occurs when receptors for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (glutamate receptors) such as the NMDA receptor and AMPA receptor are overactivated by glutamatergic storm.Tuberomammillary nucleus: The tuberomammillary nucleus is a subnucleus of the posterior third of the hypothalamus. It consists of, largely, histaminergic neurons (i.Wet-tailEthanol fuel: Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline.Laterodorsal tegmental nucleus: The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (or lateroposterior tegmental nucleus) is a nucleus situated in the brainstem, spanning the midbrain tegmentum and the pontine tegmentum. Its location is one-third of the way from the pedunculopontine nucleus to the thalamus, inferior to the pineal gland.SalicylamideVentral pallidum: The ventral pallidum is a structure within the basal ganglia of the brain. It is an output nucleus whose fibres project to thalamic nuclei, such as the ventral anterior nucleus, the ventral lateral nucleus, and the medial dorsal nucleus.TezampanelProenkephalin: Proenkephalin (PENK), formerly known as proenkephalin A (since proenkephalin B was renamed prodynorphin), is an endogenous opioid polypeptide hormone which, via proteolyic cleavage, produces the enkephalin peptides [Met]enkephalin, and to a lesser extent, [Leu]enkephalin. Upon cleavage, each proenkephalin peptide results in the generation of four copies of [Met]enkephalin, two extended copies of [Met]enkephalin, and one copy of [Leu]enkephalin.Sucrose gap: The sucrose gap technique is used to create a conduction block in nerve or muscle fibers. A high concentration of sucrose is applied to the extracellular space to increase resistance between two groups of cells, which prevents the correct opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels.DiclofensineSolitary nucleus: In the human brain, the solitary nucleus (nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus solitarius, nucleus tractus solitarii, NTS) is a series of nuclei (clusters of nerve cell bodies) forming a vertical column of grey matter embedded in the medulla oblongata. Through the center of the NTS runs the solitary tract, a white bundle of nerve fibers, including fibers from the facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, that [the NTS.Prenatal methamphetamine exposure: Prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) is the exposure of a prenatal fetus to methamphetamine when a woman uses the drug during her pregnancy. Methamphetamine (MA) has shown increasing popularity in the past two decades among women of childbearing age.Nicotine replacement therapyApomorphineTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingSweetness: Sweetness is one of the five basic tastes and is universally regarded as a pleasurable experience, except perhaps in excess. Foods rich in simple carbohydrates such as sugar are those most commonly associated with sweetness, although there are other natural and artificial compounds that are sweet at much lower concentrations, allowing their use as non-caloric sugar substitutes.Pleasure center: Pleasure center is the general term used for the brain regions involved in pleasure. Discoveries made in the 1950s initially suggested that rodents could not stop electrically stimulating parts of their brain, mainly the nucleus accumbens, which was theorized to produce great pleasure.PNU-99,194: (maleate) (hydrochloride)Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.