Renal stone formation in space: Renal stone formation and passage during space flight can potentially pose a severe risk to crew member health and safety and could affect mission outcome. While the renal stones are routinely and successfully treated on Earth, the occurrence of these during space flight can prove to be problematic.Herniaria hirsuta: Herniaria hirsuta is a species of flowering plant in the pink family known by the common name hairy rupturewort. It is native to Eurasia and North Africa, and it is known on other continents, including North America, as an introduced species.Urinary calcium: Urinary calcium is calcium in the urine. It is termed -calcuria or -calciuria as a suffix.HyperoxaluriaNephrocalcinosisSodium oxalate: http://chem.sis.UrolithiasisATC code M04: ==M04A Antigout preparations==Calcium metabolism: Calcium metabolism refers to all the movements (and how they are regulated) of calcium atoms and ions into and out of various body compartments, such as the gut, the blood plasma, the interstitial fluids which bathe the cells in the body, the intracellular fluids, and bone. An important aspect, or component, of calcium metabolism is plasma calcium homeostasis, which describes the mechanisms whereby the concentration of calcium ions in the blood plasma is kept within very narrow limits.Calculus (dental): In dentistry, calculus or tartar is a form of hardened dental plaque. It is caused by precipitation of minerals from saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in plaque on the teeth.Ethylene glycol poisoningSinensetinInternational Cystinuria Foundation: The International Cystinuria Foundation (ICF) is a Colorado based nonprofit organization that provides educational resources to individuals affected by cystinuria. Its mission is to strengthen, educate, and further the general well being of the cystinuric community.Oxalobacter formigenes: Oxalobacter formigenes is an oxalate-degrading anaerobic bacterium that colonizes the large intestine of numerous vertebrates, including humans. O.UreteroscopyTrisodium citrateCharles Horsfall: Charles Horsfall (21 June 1776 – 18 June 1846) was Bailiff and then Lord Mayor of Liverpool from 1832–1833.Potassium citrateAcetic oxalic anhydrideArterial tortuosity syndrome: Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is a rare congenital connective tissue condition disorder characterized by elongation and generalized tortuosity of the major arteries including the aorta. It is associated with hyperextensible skin and hypermobility of joints, however symptoms vary depending on the patient.Xanthogranulomatous osteomyelitis: Xanthogranulomatous osteomyelitis (XO) is a peculiar aspect of osteomyelitis characterized by prevalent histiocytic infiltrate and foamy macrophage clustering.Rosai J(2004).Distal renal tubular acidosis: Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) or Type 1 Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is the classical form of RTA, being the first described. Distal RTA is characterized by a failure of acid secretion by the alpha intercalated cells of the cortical collecting duct of the distal nephron.TophusTumor-induced osteomalacia: Tumor-induced osteomalacia, also known as oncogenic hypophosphatemic osteomalacia or oncogenic osteomalacia, is an uncommon disorder resulting in increased renal phosphate excretion, hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia.Hexagonal crystal system: In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems, the hexagonal lattice system is one of the 7 lattice systems, and the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families. They are closely related and often confused with each other, but they are not the same.Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsyOctacalcium phosphateThiazideKidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.