Urinary index: The urinary indices are the fractional sodium excretion (FENa) index and the renal failure index (RFI).Fractional sodium excretion: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine. It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption.Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.Filtration fraction: In renal physiology, the filtration fraction is the ratio of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to the renal plasma flow (RPF).Aortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.Osmoregulation: Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it keeps the organism's fluids from becoming too diluted or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis.Aldosterone escape: In physiology, aldosterone escape is a term that has been used to refer to two distinct phenomena involving aldosterone that are exactly opposite each other:Aminohippuric acidLoop diureticInulinRenin: Renin, Iran}}Renal medullaSalt and cardiovascular disease: Salt consumption has been intensely studied for its role in human physiology and impact on human health. In particular, excessive dietary salt consumption over an extended period of time has been associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease, in addition to other adverse health effects.PolyelectrolyteBendroflumethiazideProximal convoluted tubule: The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.Intravascular volume status: In medicine, intravascular volume status refers to the volume of blood in a patient's circulatory system, and is essentially the blood plasma component of the overall volume status of the body, which otherwise includes both intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid. Still, the intravascular component is usually of primary interest, and volume status is sometimes used synonymously with intravascular volume status.BufadienolideHalotolerance: Halotolerance is the adaptation of living organisms to conditions of high salinity.Walter Larcher, 2001 Halotolerant species tend to live in areas such as hypersaline lakes, coastal dunes, saline deserts, salt marshes, and inland salt seas and springs.Trans-tubular potassium gradient: The trans-tubular potassium gradient (TTKG) is an index reflecting the conservation of potassium in the cortical collecting ducts (CCD) of the kidneys. It is useful in diagnosing the causes of hyperkalemia or hypokalemia.Urination: Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the urinary meatus outside of the body. It is also known medically as micturition, voiding, uresis, or, rarely, emiction, and known colloquially by various names including tinkling, peeing, weeing, and pissing.HypertensionVasopressin analogue: Vasopressin analogues are chemicals similar in function but not necessarily similar in structure to vasopressin (ADH), such as desmopressin.Kennel clubLactated Ringer's solution: Ringer's lactate solution, also known as Ringer-Locke's solution, is a solution that is isotonic with blood. It is intended for intravenous administration in humans, but in veterinary use may also be given subcutaneously.Cyclic guanosine monophosphateJournal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System: Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Peripheral Vascular Disease. The journal's editors are Graham MacGregor and Peter Sever.Salting in: Salting in refers to the effect where increasing the ionic strength of a solution increases the solubility of some solute (such as a protein). This effect tends to be observed at lower ionic strengths.FludrocortisoneUrodynamic testingHyponatremiaUroguanylinAngiotensin receptor: The angiotensin receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors with angiotensin II as their ligands. They are important in the renin-angiotensin system: they are responsible for the signal transduction of the vasoconstricting stimulus of the main effector hormone, angiotensin II.Chronic cellular dehydrationAtrial natriuretic peptide: ANP}}Renal cortexLithium (medication)Low sodium diet: A low sodium diet is a diet that includes no more than 1,500 to 2,400 mg of sodium per day.Heart Failure Society of America, How to follow a low sodium dietEdemaThiazideParabiosis: Parabiosis, meaning "living beside", is a technical term in various contexts in fields of study related to ecology and physiology. It accordingly has been defined independently in at least three disciplines, namely experimental or medical physiology, the ecology of inactive physiological states, and the ecology of certain classes of social species that share nests.Enkephalinase inhibitor: An enkephalinase inhibitor is a type of enzyme inhibitor which inhibits one or more members of the enkephalinase class of enzymes that break down the endogenous enkephalin opioid peptides. Examples include racecadotril, ubenimex (bestatin), RB-101, and D-phenylalanine, as well as the endogenous opioid peptides opiorphin and spinorphin.PolyuriaRehydrex: Rehydrex is a volume expander solution used in intravenous therapy. It contains 25 mg/ml glucose, as well as sodium acetate and sodium chloride.Hypertensive nephropathyMelanocortin 1 receptor: The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), also known as melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MSHR), melanin-activating peptide receptor, or melanotropin receptor, is a G protein–coupled receptor that binds to a class of pituitary peptide hormones known as the melanocortins, which include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the different forms of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). MC1R is one of the key proteins involved in regulating mammalian skin and hair color.Water-electrolyte imbalanceFXYD familyAnesthesia cart: Anesthesia carts are hospital devices used to store tools that are necessary for aid during procedures that require administration of anesthesia. Anesthesia refers to the use of drugs to subdue a patient's mind and prevent him or her from feeling any pain during a surgical operation.Neprilysin: Neprilysin ( also known as membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME), neutral endopeptidase (NEP), cluster of differentiation 10 (CD10), and common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) is an enzyme] that in humans is encoded by the MME gene. Neprilysin is a [[zinc-dependent metalloprotease that cleaves peptides at the amino side of hydrophobic residues and inactivates several peptide hormones including glucagon, enkephalins, substance P, neurotensin, oxytocin, and bradykinin.Oxytocin receptor: The oxytocin receptor, also known as OXTR, is a protein which functions as receptor for the hormone and neurotransmitter oxytocin. In humans, the oxytocin receptor is encoded by the OXTR gene which has been localized to human chromosome 3p25.ImidazoleEthernet flow control: Ethernet flow control is a mechanism for temporarily stopping the transmission of data on Ethernet family computer networks. The first flow control mechanism, the PAUSE frame, was defined by the IEEE 802.TerpyridineTetrazoleOil immersionFluorodopaClemizoleOleandrinB. Vithal Shetty: Dr. Bola Vithal Shetty is an India born American scientist who developed Metolazone and was associated with the Food and Drug Administration agency.