Sodium channel: Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane. They are classified according to the trigger that opens the channel for such ions, i.Cellular neuroscience: Cellular neuroscience is the study of neurons at a cellular level. This includes morphology and physiological properties of single neurons.Nav1.5: NaV1.5 is an integral membrane protein and tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel subunit.Fractional sodium excretion: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine. It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption.Stretch-activated ion channel: Stretch-activated or stretch-gated ion channels are ion channels which open their pores in response to mechanical deformation of a neuron's plasma membrane. Also see mechanosensitive ion channels and mechanosensitive channels, with which they may be synonymous.ConotoxinPatch clamp: The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology that allows the study of single or multiple ion channels in cells. The technique can be applied to a wide variety of cells, but is especially useful in the study of excitable cells such as neurons, cardiomyocytes, muscle fibers, and pancreatic beta cells.BatrachotoxinSaxitoxinScyllatoxin: Scyllatoxin (also leiurotoxin I) is a toxin, from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus, which blocks small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels.Voltage-dependent calcium channel: Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g.Voltage-gated potassium channel database: VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium Channel DataBase) is a database of functional data about the voltage-gated potassium channels.Reversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.Pyrethroid: A pyrethroid is an organic compound similar to the natural pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum).Periodic current reversalEarly myoclonic encephalopathy: Early myoclonic encephalopathy (EME) is an epilepsy syndrome where myoclonic seizures develop in the neonatal period. After several months, the seizure pattern may develop to infantile spasms (West syndrome).Phoneutria nigriventer toxin-3: Phoneutria nigriventer toxin-3 is more commonly referred to as PhTx3.Saltatory conduction: Saltatory conduction (from the Latin saltare, to hop or leap) is the propagation of action potentials along myelinated axons from one node of Ranvier to the next node, increasing the conduction velocity of action potentials. The uninsulated nodes of Ranvier are the only places along the axon where ions are exchanged across the axon membrane, regenerating the action potential between regions of the axon that are insulated by myelin, unlike electrical conduction in a simple circuit.Oocyte selection: Oocyte selection is a procedure that is performed prior to in vitro fertilization, in order to use oocytes with maximal chances of resulting in pregnancy. In contrast, embryo selection takes place after fertilization.Arachnology: Arachnology is the scientific study of spiders and related animals such as scorpions, pseudoscorpions, and harvestmen, collectively called arachnids. Those who study spiders and other arachnids are arachnologists.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Ventricular action potentialToxin: A toxin (from ) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849–1919).ErythromelalgiaProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Coles PhillipsBlack fat–tailed scorpion: Black fat–tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) is a scorpion species, belonging to the family Buthidae. It is black in color and can grow up to 9 cm.IprazochromeLidocaine: lignocaineANK3: Ankyrin-3 (ANK-3), also known as ankyrin-G, is a protein from ankyrin family that in humans is encoded by the ANK3 gene.Potassium channel blocker: Potassium channel blockers are agents which interfere with conduction through potassium channels.Anthopleurin: Anthopleurin is a toxin from the venom of the sea anemones Anthopleura xanthogrammica and Anthopleura elegantissima. These anemones use anthopleurin as a pheromone to quickly withdraw their tentacles in the presence of predators.ATC code C08: ==C08C Selective calcium channel blockers with mainly vascular effects==Brevetoxin: Brevetoxin (PbTx), or brevetoxins, are a suite of cyclic polyether compounds produced naturally by a species of dinoflagellate known as Karenia brevis. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins that bind to voltage-gated sodium channels in nerve cells, leading to disruption of normal neurological processes and causing the illness clinically described as neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP).Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Insecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.Conus bruguieriLocal anesthetic: Local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected as well. Also, when it is used on specific nerve pathways (local anesthetic nerve block), paralysis (loss of muscle power) can be achieved as well.Tertiapin: Tertiapin is a 21-amino acid peptide isolated from venom of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera). It blocks two different types of potassium channels, inward rectifier potassium channels (Kir) and calcium activated large conductance potassium channels (BK).Protein turnover: Protein turnover is the balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. More synthesis than breakdown indicates an anabolic state that builds lean tissues, more breakdown than synthesis indicates a catabolic state that burns lean tissues.Electrical conductivity meterDepopulation of cockroaches in post-Soviet states: A mass depopulation of cockroaches has been observed since the beginning of the 21st century in Russia and other countries of the former USSR. Observers note quick disappearance of various types of cockroaches from cities and towns in Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Moldova, and Belarus.Huwentoxin: Huwentoxins (HWTX) are a group of neurotoxic peptides found in the venom of the Chinese bird spider Haplopelma huwena. While structural similarity can be found among several of these toxins, HWTX as a group possess high functional diversity.Pang Hui: Pang Hui was a military general of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms era of Chinese history. He was the son of Pang De, and inherited his father's courage and ferocity in battle.Sodium channel blocker: Sodium channel blockers are drugs which impair conduction of sodium ions (Na+) through sodium channels.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Axon guidance: Axon guidance (also called axon pathfinding) is a subfield of neural development concerning the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Axons often follow very precise paths in the nervous system, and how they manage to find their way so accurately is being researched.Ablomin: Ablomin is a toxin present in the venom of the Japanese Mamushi snake, which blocks L-type voltage-gated calcium channels.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Chloride channel: C:88-438, A:88-438, B:88-438, F:88-438, A:88-438, B:88-438, B:88-438, A:88-438, B:88-438, B:88-438, B:88-438Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Reaction coordinateConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Delta-palutoxin: Delta-Palutoxins (δ-Palutoxins) consist of a homologous group of four insect-specific toxins from the venom of the spider Paracoelotes luctuosus (also known as Pireneitega luctuosa). They show a high toxicity against Spodoptera litura larvae by inhibiting sodium channels, leading to strong paralytic activity and eventually to the death of the insect.Margatoxin: Margatoxin (MgTX) is a peptide that selectively inhibits Kv1.3 voltage-dependent potassium channels.Conantokins: Conantokins are a small family of helical peptides that are derived from the venom of predatory marine snails of the genus Conus. Conantokins act as potent and specific antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).
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