Muscarinic antagonist: A muscarinic receptor antagonist (MRA) is a type of anticholinergic agent that blocks the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Acetylcholine (often abbreviated ACh) is a neurotransmitter, whose receptor is a protein found in synapses and other cell membranes.PD-0298029TelenzepineParasympathomimetic drug: A parasympathomimetic drug, sometimes called a cholinomimetic drug, is a substance that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS). These chemicals are also called cholinergic drugs because acetylcholine (ACh) is the neurotransmitter used by the PSNS. Chemicals in this family can act either directly by stimulating the nicotinic or muscarinic receptors (thus mimicking acetylcholine), or indirectly by inhibiting cholinesterase, promoting acetylcholine release, or other mechanisms. Brenner, G. M. (2000). Pharmacology. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 0-7216-7757-6Glycopyrronium bromideTiotropium bromide: (cation)SunifiramDiaminopropane: Diaminopropane may refer to either of two isomeric chemical compounds:MuscarineActive placebo: An active placebo is a placebo that produces noticeable side effects that may convince the person being treated that they are receiving a legitimate treatment, rather than an ineffective placebo.Anatoxin-aTrospium chlorideOxaflozanePhenylpiperidine: Phenylpiperidine is a chemical compound with a phenyl moiety directly attached to piperidine. There are a variety of pharmacological effects associated some phenylpiperidines including morphine-like activity or other central nervous system effects.QuinuclidineA. N. Hartley: Annie Norah Hartley (1902 – 1994), usually known simply as Norah Hartley, was a dog breeder and the first female board member of the Kennel Club.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.MethylatropineSoman (band): Soman is a power noise/techno act from Germany. They have had several hits in the Deutsche Alternative Charts.Parasympatholytic: A parasympatholytic agent is a substance or activity that reduces the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system. (The parasympathetic nervous system is often colloquially described as the "Feed and Breed" or "Rest and Digest" portion of the autonomic nervous system.PhenylpropanolamineMatsumoto: Matsumoto (松本 or 松元, "base of the pine tree") is a common Japanese surname and place name.Bronchodilator: A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs. Bronchodilators may be endogenous (originating naturally within the body), or they may be medications administered for the treatment of breathing difficulties.OlodaterolMuscle contraction: Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers. In physiology, muscle contraction does not mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced without changes in muscle length such as holding a heavy book or a dumbbell at the same position.PhysostigmineWIN 56,098: WIN 56,098 is a chemical that is considered to be an aminoalkylindole derivative. It is a tricyclic aryl derivative that acts as a competitive antagonist at the CB2 cannabinoid receptor.Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.SIB-1553ABronchoconstriction: Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with consequent coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.Calcium signaling: Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors.Acetylcholine receptorTrachealis muscle: The trachealis muscle is a smooth muscle that bridges the gap between the free ends of C-shaped cartilages at the posterior border of the trachea, adjacent to the esophagus.PhosphatidylinositolBladder augmentation: Bladder augmentation is a surgical alteration of the urinary bladder. It involves removing strips of tissue from the intestinal tract and adding this to the tissue of the bladder.Inositol phosphateUrapidilBethanecholHector McNeil: Hector McNeil PC (10 March 1907 – 11 October 1955) was a Scottish Labour politician.Sustainability marketing myopia: Sustainability marketing myopia is a term used in sustainability marketing referring to a distortion stemming from the overlooking of socio-environmental attributes of a sustainable product or service at the expenses of customer benefits and values. The idea of sustainability marketing myopia is rooted into conventional marketing myopia theory, as well as green marketing myopia.Nicotine replacement therapyDrug interaction: A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together. This action can be synergistic (when the drug's effect is increased) or antagonistic (when the drug's effect is decreased) or a new effect can be produced that neither produces on its own.Baby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: In some individuals, the effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is to cause increased carbon dioxide retention, which may cause drowsiness, headaches, and in severe cases lack of respiration, which may lead to death. People with lung ailments or with central respiratory depression, who receive supplemental oxygen, require careful monitoring.TBR1: T-box, brain, 1 is a transcription factor protein important in vertebrate embryo development. It is encoded by the TBR1 gene.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingMyocytolysis: Myocytolysis refers to a degenerative change (often reversible) that occurs to myocytes upon myocardial strain. This phenomenon tends to occur when neighboring cardiac muscle loses its ability to contract (i.Reversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist: The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1RN gene.Periodic current reversalBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Achy Breaky HeartPlace cellThioperamide