Pioglitazone/metforminAnti-diabetic medication: Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood. With the exceptions of insulin, exenatide, liraglutide and pramlintide, all are administered orally and are thus also called oral hypoglycemic agents or oral antihyperglycemic agents.GliquidoneOutline of diabetes: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes:Infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome: Polycystic ovary disease (PCOS) is a hormonal imbalance in women that is thought to be one of the leading causes of female infertility.Palacio JR et,al.PhenforminThiazolidinedione: The thiazolidinediones , also known as glitazones, are a class of medications used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. They were introduced in the late 1990s.Lactic acidosisBlood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Adenylate kinase: Adenylate kinase () (also known as ADK or myokinase) is a phosphotransferase enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of adenine nucleotides, and plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis.GlipizideInsulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.AICA ribonucleotideCombination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).Geoffrey Chang: Geoffrey Chang is a professor at the University of California, San Diego's Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine. His laboratory focuses on the structural biology of integral membrane proteins, particularly exploring X-ray crystallography techniques for solving the tertiary structures of membrane proteins that are notoriously resistant to crystallization.RNTP: A ribonucleoside tri-phosphate (rNTP) is a ribonucleoside with 3 phosphate groups. rNTPs are the building blocks of RNA synthesis as well as the synthesis of primers in DNA replication.Development of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4 inhibitors) are enzyme inhibitors that inhibit the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) and are a potent treatment for type 2 diabetes. Inhibition of the DPP-4 enzyme prolongs and enhances the activity of incretins that play an important role in insulin secretion and blood glucose control regulation.Adamantane