Intervertebral disc damage and spaceflight: Astronauts have expressed an increased incidence of back pain during spaceflight and herniated intervertebral discs (IVD) have been diagnosed upon return of Skylab and Shuttle spaceflight participants.Lumbar disc disease: Lumbar disc disease is the drying out of the spongy interior matrix of an intervertebral disc in the spine. Many physicians and patients use the term lumbar disc disease to encompass several different causes of back pain or sciatica.Joint dislocationDegenerative disc diseaseCervical spine disorder: Cervical Spine Disorders are illnesses that are relatively detrimental to ones physical health. These ailments exist in the cervical spine which is made up of the upper first seven vertebrae, encasing and shielding the Spinal cord.HyperintensityDiscectomyCervical fractureStomochord: The stomochord is a flexible, hollow tube found in hemichordates. Stomochords arise in embryonic development as an outpocketing from the roof of the embryonic gut anterior to the pharynx.Traumatic spondylopathyMechanochemistry: Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g.Clay-shoveler fracture: Clay-shoveler's fracture is a stable fracture through the spinous process of a vertebra occurring at any of the lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebrae, classically at C6 or C7. In Australia in the 1930s, men digging deep ditches tossed clay 10 to 15 feet above their heads using long handled shovels.DiscitisLow back painCurrarino syndrome: The Currarino syndrome (also Currarino triad) is an inherited congenital disorder where (1) the sacrum (the fused vertebrae forming the back of the pelvis) is not formed properly, (2) there is a mass in the presacral space in front of the sacrum, and (3) there are malformations of the anus or rectum. It can also cause an anterior meningocele or a presacral teratoma.Interbody fusion cage: An interbody fusion cage (colloquially known as a "spine cage") is a prosthesis used in spinal fusion procedures to maintain foraminal height and decompression. They are cylindrical or square-shaped devices, and usually threaded.Proteoglycan: Proteoglycans are proteins that are heavily glycosylated. The basic proteoglycan unit consists of a "core protein" with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain(s).RadiculopathyScoliosis Research SocietySpondylolisthesisLaminectomySpinal stenosis: Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal canal that may occur in any of the regions of the spine. This narrowing causes a restriction to the spinal canal, resulting in a neurological deficit.Extracellular matrixDynamic strain aging: Although sometimes dynamic strain aging is used interchangeably with the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect (or serrated yielding), dynamic strain aging refers specifically to the microscopic mechanism that induces the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect. This strengthening mechanism is related to solid-solution strengthening and has been observed in a variety of fcc and bcc substitutional and interstitial alloys, metalloids like silicon, and ordered intermetallics within specific ranges of temperature and strain rate.LUSAS: LUSAS is a UK-based developer and supplier of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) application software products that bear the same name.Maverick (cigarette): Maverick is a brand of cigarettes owned by ITG Brands LLC, a subsidiary of Imperial Tobacco Company. Maverick cigarettes are made in the United States and Austria.PUR4: pUR4 is a recombinant peptide that is known to inhibit the polymerization of fibronectin in a number of cell types including fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Fibronectin is an essential component of the extracellular matrix that acts as a mediator between the extracellular matrix and the cells that reside within the matrix.Spinal decompression: Spinal decompression is the relief of pressure on one or many pinched nerves (neural impingement) of the spinal column.Peripheral nerve injury classification: Classification of peripheral nerve injury assists in prognosis and determination of treatment strategy. Classification of nerve injury was described by Seddon in 1943 and by Sunderland in 1951.ChondrocyteDegenerative suspensory ligament desmitis: Degenerative Suspensory Ligament Desmitis commonly called DSLD, also known as Equine Systemic Proteoglycan Accumulation (ESPA) is a systemicTartrazineLordosisBeef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Facet joint injection: Facet joint injections are used to alleviate symptoms of facet joint syndrome.Facet Joint SyndromeRegeneration (biology): In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. Every species is capable of regeneration, from bacteria to humans.Old German Shepherd Dog: Old German Shepherd Dog () is a controversial predicate for the long-hair variation of the German Shepherd Dog (), which is not a separate breed recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Nonetheless, there are efforts to establish this variety as a separate breed.Pars interarticularisEpidural space: In the spine, the epidural space (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater also known as "epidural cavity", "extradural space" or "peridural space") is an anatomic space that is the outermost part of the spinal canal. It is the space within the canal (formed by the surrounding vertebrae) lying outside the dura mater (which encloses the arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space, the cerebrospinal fluid, and the spinal cord).SpondylosisSacral anterior root stimulator: An implantable medical device enabling patients with a spinal cord lesion to empty their bladders.Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society: Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society is an international learned society. Its goal is the worldwide advancement of both the science and technology of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.CollagenTraction substation: A traction substation or traction current converter plant is an electrical substation that converts electric power from the form provided by the electrical power industry for public utility service to an appropriate voltage, current type and frequency to supply railways, trams (streetcars) or trolleybuses with traction current.Medical radiographyMilwaukee shoulder syndrome: Milwaukee shoulder syndrome (apatite-associated destructive arthritis) is a rheumatological condition similar to calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD). It is associated with periarticular or intraarticular deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals.Hyaline cartilageGross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.N-terminal telopeptide: In bone physiology, the N-terminal telopeptide (or more formally, amino-terminal collagen crosslinks, and known by the acronym NTX) is a [that can be used as a biomarker] to measure the rate of [[bone turnover. NTX can be measured in the urine (uNTX) or serum (serum NTX).Ductility: In materials science, ductility is a solid material's ability to deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to be stretched into a wire. Malleability, a similar property, is a material's ability to deform under compressive stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to form a thin sheet by hammering or rolling.