Gingival margin: The free gingival margin is the interface between the sulcular epithelium and the epithelium of the oral cavity. This interface exists at the most coronal point of the gingiva, otherwise known as the crest of the marginal gingiva.GingivoplastyGreat Recession in Africa: As a direct result of the late 2000s recession, some economies in Africa have been primarily affected by reduced global demand and lower prices of commodities such as oil, platinum, nickel, gold, and copper. South Africa was the first African country to fall in recession.Apical delta: Apical delta refers to the branching pattern of small accessory canals and minor foramina seen at the tip or apex of some tooth roots.Lingual frenectomyGluma: ==Use==Dense connective tissue: Dense connective tissue, also called dense fibrous tissue, has fibers as its main matrix element.Barrier membrane: A barrier membrane is a device used in oral surgery and periodontal surgery to prevent epithelium, which regenerates relatively quickly, from growing into an area in which another, more slowly growing tissue type, such as bone, is desired. Such a method of preventing epithelial migration into a specific area is known as guided tissue regeneration (GTR).Pocket reduction surgery: In dentistry, pocket reduction surgery is a periodontal surgery performed in order to reduce the probeable depth of the gingival sulcus (known as a periodontal pocket in disease) to allow for less plaque accumulation and greater access for hygiene. Reducing the depths of the periodontal pockets eliminates an environment that is hospitable for the more virulent periodontal pathogens.Desquamative gingivitisFranz Hein: Franz Hein (1892–1976) was a German scientist and artist.Rotation flap: A rotation flap is a semicircular skin flap that is rotated into the defect on a fulcrum point. Rotation flaps provide the ability to mobilize large areas of tissue with a wide vascular base for reconstruction.Electropalatography: Electropalatography (EPG) is a technique used to monitor contacts between the tongue and hard palate, particularly during articulation and speech.Neodymium: Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60. It is a soft silvery metal that tarnishes in air.Gingival enlargement: Gingival enlargement, (also termed gingival overgrowth, hypertrophic gingivitis, gingival hyperplasia, or gingival hypertrophy, and sometimes abbreviated to GO), is an increase in the size of the gingiva (gums). It is a common feature of gingival disease.Gingival disease: A gingival disease is a disorder primarily affecting the gingiva.Drug-related gingival hyperplasia: Drug-related gingival hyperplasia is a cutaneous condition characterized by enlargement of the gums noted during the first year of drug treatment. There are three drug classes that are associated with this condition namely, anticonvulsants (such as phenyotoin and phenobartibal), calcium channel blocker (such as amlopidine, nifedipine and verapamil) and cyclosporine, an immunosuppressant Although the mechanism of drug related gingival hyperplasia is not well understood, some risk factors for the condition include the duration of drug use and poor oral hygiene.Inferior rectus muscle: The inferior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit.Optimax: Optimax is a UK-based laser eye treatment specialist which has 38 locations nationwide. Optimax was established as one of the first private clinics to offer laser eye surgery.Bone destruction patterns in periodontal disease: In periodontal disease, not only does the bone that supports the teeth, known as alveolar bone, reduce in height in relation to the teeth, but the morphology of the remaining alveolar bone is altered.Carranza, FA: Bone Loss and Patterns of Bone Destruction.OverjetRASopathy: The RASopathies are developmental syndromes caused by germline mutations in genes that alter the Ras subfamily and Mitogen-activated protein kinases that control signal transduction, including:Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic disease: Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases is one of the seven categories of periodontitis as defined by the American Academy of Periodontology 1999 classification system. At least 16 systemic diseases have been linked to periodontitis.EsotropiaRetromolar space: The retromolar space or retromolar gap is a space at the rear of a mandible, between the back of the last molar and the anterior edge of the ascending ramus where it crosses the alveolar margin.StrabismusMax Bielschowsky: Max Bielschowsky (February 19, 1869 – August 15, 1940) was a German neuropathologist born in Breslau.DiplopiaCircular knittingRehetobel: Rehetobel is a municipality in the canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden in Switzerland.
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