Evolution of cells: Evolution of cells refers to the evolutionary origin and subsequent evolutionary development of cells. Cells first emerged at least 3.Codon Adaptation Index: The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) is the most widespread technique for analyzing Codon usage bias. As opposed to other measures of codon usage bias, such as the 'effective number of codons' (Nc), which measure deviation from a uniform bias (null hypothesis), CAI measures the deviation of a given protein coding gene sequence with respect to a reference set of genes.Wobble base pairGag/pol translational readthrough site: Gag/pol translational readthrough site (or Retroviral readthrough element) is a cis-regulatory element found in retroviruses. The readthrough site facilitates the mechanism of translation readthrough of the stop codon at the gag-pol junction producing the gag and pol fusion protein in certain retroviruses.Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, class IIT-box leaderMolecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.Translational regulation: Translational regulation refers to the control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA. The corresponding mechanisms are primarily targeted on the control of ribosome recruitment on the initiation codon, but can also involve modulation of the elongation or termination of protein synthesis.Blepharisma japonicum: Blepharisma japonicum is a species of protozoans, that can be found either in water or soilHabitat of Japan.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Cibicides: Cibicides is a cosmopolitan genus of benthic foraminifera known from at least as far back as the Paleocene (Loeblich & Tappan, 1988) that extends down to the present.Lysidine (chemical)O-phosphoseryl-tRNASec kinase: O-phosphoseryl-tRNASec kinase (, PSTK, phosphoseryl-tRNA[Ser]Sec kinase, phosphoseryl-tRNASec kinase) is an enzyme with system name ATP:L-seryl-tRNASec O-phosphotransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionMethanocaldococcus jannaschii: Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (formerly Methanococcus jannas chii) is a thermophilic methanogenic archaea in the class Methanococci. It was the first archaeon to have its complete genome sequenced.Coles PhillipsAARS2: Alanyl—tRNA synthetase, mitochondrial, also known as alanine—tRNA ligase (AlaRS) or alanyl—tRNA synthetase 2 (AARS2), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AARS2 gene.Loligo reynaudii: Loligo reynaudii, commonly known as the Cape Hope squid, is a 20–30 cm long squid belonging to the family Loliginidae. In South Africa it is known as either calamari or chokka.Nucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.SECIS elementRaphidiophrys contractilisMonoiodotyrosineList of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Primordial sandwich: The concept of the primordial sandwich was proposed by the chemist Günter Wächtershäuser to describe the possible origins of the first cell membranes, and, therefore, the first cell.Hexamita: Hexamita is a genus of parasitic diplomonads.International College of Dentists: InternationalBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.O-phospho-L-seryl-tRNA:Cys-tRNA synthase: O-phospho-L-seryl-tRNA:Cys-tRNA synthase (, SepCysS, Sep-tRNA:Cys-tRNA synthase) is an enzyme with system name O-phospho-L-seryl-tRNACys:hydrogen sulfide 2-aminopropanoate transferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionEukaryotic release factors: Eukaryotic translation termination factor 1 (eRF1), also known asTB3-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ETF1 gene.YjdF RNA motifUltrasensitivity: In molecular biology, ultrasensitivity describes an output response that is more sensitive to stimulus change than the hyperbolic Michaelis-Menten response. Ultrasensitivity is one of the biochemical switches in the cell cycle and has been implicated in a number of important cellular events, including exiting G2 cell cycle arrests in Xenopus laevis oocytes, a stage to which the cell or organism would not want to return.Base pair: Base pairs (unit: bp), which form between specific nucleobases (also termed nitrogenous bases), are the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA. Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine) allow the DNA helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is subtly dependent on its nucleotide sequence.Lattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.Domain (biology): In biological taxonomy, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, empire, or regio) is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist. According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria, and Eukaryota.Protein engineering: Protein engineering is the process of developing useful or valuable proteins. It is a young discipline, with much research taking place into the understanding of protein folding and recognition for protein design principles.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.HEPN domain: In molecular biology, the HEPN domain (higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide-binding domain) is a region of approximately 110 amino acids found in the C terminus of sacsin, a chaperonin implicated in an early-onset neurodegenerative disease in human, and in many bacterial and archaea proteins. There are three classes of proteins with HEPN domains:Internal ribosome entry site: An internal ribosome entry site, abbreviated IRES, is a nucleotide sequence that allows for translation initiation in the middle of a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence as part of the greater process of protein synthesis. Usually, in eukaryotes, translation can be initiated only at the 5' end of the mRNA molecule, since 5' cap recognition is required for the assembly of the initiation complex.Selenoprotein: In molecular biology a selenoprotein is any protein that includes a selenocysteine (Sec, U, Se-Cys) amino acid residue. Among functionally characterized selenoproteins are five glutathione peroxidases (GPX) and three thioredoxin reductases, (TrxR/TXNRD) which both contain only one Sec.Open reading frame: In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the potential to code for a protein or peptide. An ORF is a continuous stretch of codons that do not contain a stop codon (usually UAA, UAG or UGA).CS-BLAST