Vpx: Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. It is similar in structure to the protein Vpr that is carried by SIV and HIV-2 as well as HIV-1.P-TEFbColes PhillipsTripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter: Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporters (TRAP transporters) are a large family of solute transporters found in bacteria and archaea, but not in eukaryotes, that appear to be specific for the uptake of organic acids. They are unique in that they utilize a substrate binding protein (SBP) in combination with a secondary transporter.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Bovine immunodeficiency virus: Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) is a retrovirus belonging to the Lentivirus genus. It is similar to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and infects cattle.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Rev (HIV): Rev is a transactivating protein that is essential to the regulation of HIV-1 protein expression. A nuclear localization signal is encoded in the rev gene, which allows the Rev protein to be localized to the nucleus, where it is involved in the export of unspliced and incompletely spliced mRNAs.Uniform methods and rules: The Uniform methods and rules are documents by the Veterinary Services office of USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) that specify the minimum standards for preventing, detecting, controlling, and/or eradicating a particular animal disease. APHIS in late 2004 had UM&Rs posted on bovine tuberculosis eradication, brucellosis, brucellosis in cervidae, equine infectious anemia, pseudorabies eradication, swine brucellosis control/eradication, and voluntary scrapie flock certification programVisna virus: Visna virus (also known as visna-maedi virus, maedi-visna virus and ovine lentivirus) from the genus lentivirinae and subfamily Orthoretrovirinae, is a "prototype" retrovirus that causes encephalitis and chronic pneumonitis in sheep. It is known as visna when found in the brain, and maedi when infecting the lungs.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.GC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.Cell-penetrating peptide: Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptides that facilitate cellular uptake of various molecular cargo (from nanosize particles to small chemical molecules and large fragments of DNA). The "cargo" is associated with the peptides either through chemical linkage via covalent bonds or through non-covalent interactions.Gating signal: A gating signal is a digital signal or pulse (sometimes called a "trigger") that provides a time window so that a particular event or signal from among many will be selected and others will be eliminated or discarded.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Cognitive effects of HIVEscherichia coli (molecular biology): Escherichia coli (; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gammaproteobacterium commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).Antithrombin: Antithrombin (AT) is a small protein molecule that inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation system. Antithrombin is a glycoprotein produced by the liver and consists of 432 amino acids.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Nucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.Cyclin: Cyclins are a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) enzymes.Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.Protein detoxification: Protein detoxification is the process by which proteins containing methylated arginine are broken down and removed from the body.HIV Vaccine Trials Network: The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) is a non-profit organization which connects physicians and scientists with activists and community educators for the purpose of conducting clinical trials seeking a safe and effective HIV vaccine. Collaboratively, research professionals and laypeople review potential vaccines for safety, immune response, and efficacy.PCAF: P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), also known as K(lysine) acetyltransferase 2B (KAT2B), is a human gene and transcriptional coactivator associated with p53.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Heterodimeric amino-acid transporter: Heterodimeric amino-acid transporters are a family of transport proteins that facilitate the transport of certain amino acids across cell membranes. Each transporter comprises a two-protein, a light and heavy, subunit.AcetyltransferaseTranscription preinitiation complex: The preinitiation complex (abbreviated PIC) is a large complex of proteins that is necessary for the transcription of protein-coding genes in eukaryotes (+archaea). The preinitiation complex helps position RNA polymerase II over gene transcription start sites, denatures the DNA, and positions the DNA in the RNA polymerase II active site for transcription.Kaposi's sarcomaSANT domain: In molecular biology, a SANT domain is a protein domain that allows many chromatin remodeling proteins to interact with histones. The name SANT is an acronym standing for "Swi3, Ada2, N-Cor, and TFIIIB".ThylakoidNatural transfer: The natural transfer (hypothesis or theory), in reference to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, states that humans first received HIV by contact with primates, presumably from a fight with a Chimpanzee during hunting or consumption of primate meat, and became contaminated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). According to the 'Hunter Theory', the virus was transmitted from a chimpanzee to a human when a bushmeat hunter was bitten or cut while hunting or butchering an animal.Astrocyte: Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron = star and cyte from Greek "kyttaron" = cell), also known collectively as astroglia, are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. The proportion of astrocytes in the brain is not well defined.RNA-binding protein database: The RNA-binding Proteins Database (RBPDB) is a biological database of RNA-binding protein specificities that includes experimental observations of RNA-binding sites. The experimental results included are both in vitro and in vivo from primary literature.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus: Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a retrovirus that infects goats.