NeuroeconomicsMcCloskey critique: The McCloskey critique refers to a critique of post-1940s "official modernist" methodology in economics, inherited from logical positivism in philosophy. The critique maintains that the methodology neglects how economics can be done, is done, and should be done to advance the subject.Penalized present value: The Penalized Present Value (PPV) is a method of Capital Budgeting under risk developed by Fernando Gómez-Bezares in the 1980s.Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Pharmaceutical Research Institute (PRI)- AlbanyPavement life-cycle cost analysis: In September 1998, the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) introduced risk analysis, a probabilistic approach to account for the uncertainty of the inputs of the cost/benefit evaluation of pavement projects, into its decision-making policies. The traditional (deterministic) approach did not consider the variability of inputs.Loss function: In mathematical optimization, statistics, decision theory and machine learning, a loss function or cost function is a function that maps an event or values of one or more variables onto a real number intuitively representing some "cost" associated with the event. An optimization problem seeks to minimize a loss function.Noreen M. Clark: Noreen M. Clark was the Myron E.Ovide F. PomerleauThe Final Decision: The Final Decision is an episode from season 1 of the animated TV series X-Men Animated Series.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,List of social psychology theoriesAgeing Research Reviews: Ageing Research Reviews is a scientific journal covering ageing published by Elsevier. The editor in chief is Mark Mattson.David FulkerList of psychological research methods: A wide range of research methods are used in psychology. These methods vary by the sources of information that are drawn on, how that information is sampled, and the types of instruments that are used in data collection.Senorita Stakes: The Senorita Stakes is an American flat Thoroughbred horse race for three-year-old fillies once held annually at Hollywood Park Racetrack in Inglewood, California.Precautionary savings: Precautionary saving is saving (non-expenditure of a portion of income) that occurs in response to uncertainty regarding future income. The precautionary motive to delay consumption and save in the current period rises due to the lack of completeness of insurance markets.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Curiosity: Curiosity (from Latin curiosus "careful, diligent, curious," akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and animal species. Curiosity is heavily associated with all aspects of human development, in which derives the process of learning and desire to acquire knowledge and skill.Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences: Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences – structural unit of Open International University of Human Development “Ukraine” (OIUHD “Ukraina”).Reward system: The reward system is a group of neural structures that are critically involved in mediating the effects of reinforcement. A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior.Population healthGlobal Health Delivery ProjectDrumcondra Hospital: Drumcondra Hospital (originally, the Whitworth Fever Hospital, and from 1852 to 1893 the Whitworth General Hospital) was a voluntary hospital on Whitworth Road in Dublin, Ireland, that became part of the Rotunda Hospital in 1970.List of companies listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange: The Oslo Stock Exchange (Norwegian: Oslo Børs) serves as the main market for trading in the shares of Norwegian companies. It opens at 9:00am and closes 4:30pm local time (CET).Chronic care: Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hypertension and depression.Information hypothesis of conditioned reinforcementLearning Plan: A Learning Plan is a document (possibly an interactive or on-line document) that is used to plan learning, usually over an extended period of time.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingNeurogeneticsList of Drug Enforcement Administration operations: The following is a list of major operations undertaken by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, in reverse chronological order.Disease burden: Disease burden is the impact of a health problem as measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators. It is often quantified in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) or disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), both of which quantify the number of years lost due to disease (YLDs).Barratt WaughSwadeshi Jagaran Manch: The Swadeshi Jagaran Manch or SJM is an economic wing of Sangh Parivar that again took the tool of Swadeshi advocated in India before its independence to destabilize the British Empire. SJM took to the promotion of Swadeshi (indigenous) industries and culture as a dote against LPG.Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Avoidance reactionCollege of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand: The College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand was founded in 1964. It is a part of AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.Medical sign: A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a physician during a physical examination of a patient. For example, whereas paresthesia is a symptom (only the person experiencing it can directly observe their own tingling feeling), erythema is a sign (anyone can confirm that the skin is redder than usual).Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Injustice SocietyLifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.California Proposition 29 (2012): Proposition 29, the California Cancer Research Act, is a California ballot measure that was defeated by California voters at the statewide election on June 5, 2012.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).Andrew Dickson WhiteHumanitarian crisis: A humanitarian crisis (or "humanitarian disaster") is defined as a singular event or a series of events that are threatening in terms of health, safety or well being of a community or large group of people."What Is a Humanitarian Crisis", Humanitarian Coalition, Retrieved on 6 May 2013.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Model risk: In finance, model risk is the risk of loss resulting from using models to make decisions, initially and frequently referring to valuing financial securities. However model risk is more and more prevalent in industries other than financial securities valuation, such as consumer credit score, real-time probability prediction of a fraudulent credit card transaction to the probability of air flight passenger being a terrorist.Cocaine intoxicationHypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.