Premature chromosome condensation: Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) occurs in eukaryotic organisms when mitotic cells fuse with interphase cells. Chromatin, a substance that contains genetic material such as DNA, is normally found in a loose bundle inside a cell's nucleus.Chromosome regionsGenetic imbalance: Genetic imbalance is to describe situation when the genome of a cell or organism has more copies of some genes than other genes due to chromosomal rearrangements or aneuploidy.Firebrat: The firebrat (Thermobia domestica, sometimes listed as Thermophila furnorum) is a small insect (typically 1–1.5 cm) similar to the silverfish, both in the order Thysanura.Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome: Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome (SFMS1), also called X-linked mental retardation-hypotonic facies syndrome 1 (MRXHF1), Carpenter–Waziri syndrome, Chudley–Lowry syndrome, SFMS, Holmes–Gang syndrome and Juberg–Marsidi syndrome (JMS), is a rare X-linked recessive congenital disorder that causes birth defects. This syndrome was named after 3 men, Richard D.FANC proteins: FANC proteins are a group of proteins associated with Fanconi anemia.Micronucleus test: A micronucleus test is a test used in toxicological screening for potential genotoxic compounds. The assay is now recognized as one of the most successful and reliable assays for genotoxic carcinogens, i.Telomere: A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes. Its name is derived from the Greek nouns telos (τέλος) 'end' and merοs (μέρος, root: μερ-) 'part.Immortal DNA strand hypothesis: The immortal DNA strand hypothesis was proposed in 1975 by John Cairns as a mechanism for adult stem cells to minimize mutations in their genomes.Cairns, J.Circular bacterial chromosome: A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA. Unlike the linear DNA of most eukaryotes, typical bacterial chromosomes are circular.Bookmarking: Bookmarking (also "gene bookmarking" or "mitotic bookmarking") refers to a potential mechanism of transmission of gene expression programs through cell division.CentromereColes PhillipsG2-M DNA damage checkpoint: The G2-M DNA damage checkpoint is an important cell cycle checkpoint in eukaryotic organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. This checkpoint ensures that cells don't initiate mitosis before they have a chance to repair damaged DNA after replication.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Oncogene: An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.Wilbur, Beth, editor.Sister (Sister2Sister song)Transient neonatal diabetes mellitusRecombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.PlasmoDB: PlasmoDB is a biological database for the genus Plasmodium. The database is a member of the EuPathDB project.Quantum noise: In physics, quantum noise refers to the uncertainty of a physical quantity that is due to its quantum origin. In certain situations, quantum noise appears as shot noise; for example, most optical communications use amplitude modulation, and thus, the quantum noise appears as shot noise only.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Intraepithelial lymphocyte: Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are lymphocytes found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reproductive tract. However, unlike other T cells, IELs do not need priming.Southern corn leaf blight: Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is a fungal disease of maize caused by the plant pathogen Bipolaris maydis (also known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus in its teleomorph state).Composite transposon: A composite transposon is similar in function to simple transposons and Insertion Sequence (IS) elements in that it has protein coding DNA segments flanked by inverted, repeated sequences that can be recognized by transposase enzymes. A composite transposon, however, is flanked by two separate IS elements which may or may not be exact replicas.Base excision repair: frame|right|Basic steps of base excision repair|Basic steps of base excision repairGenetic linkage: Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked.DNA re-replication: DNA re-replication (or simply rereplication) is an undesirable and possibly fatal occurrence in eukaryotic cells in which the genome is replicated more than once per cell cycle. Rereplication is believed to lead to genomic instability and has been implicated in the pathologies of a variety of human cancers.John Payne ToddLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Ring chromosome: A ring chromosome is a chromosome whose arms have fused together to form a ring. Ring chromosomes were first discovered by Lilian Vaughan Morgan in 1926.DNA-binding proteinThermal cyclerZuotin: Z-DNA binding protein 1, also known as Zuotin, is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast gene.CP 55,940Metaphase: Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase. These chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the equator of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary - About.com, a part of The New York Times Company.