Simon Carpenter: Dr. Simon Carpenter, Head of the Entomology and Modelling Group in the Vector-borne Diseases Programme at the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council Institute for Animal Health’s Pirbright Laboratory in Woking, Surrey, is an entomologist who was awarded the first Rooker Prize in 2009 in recognition of his research on biting midges that transmit bluetongue virus (BTV), the causative agent of bluetongue disease, an important orbivirus disease of ruminants.Bluetongue disease: Bluetongue disease is a-contagious, insect-borne, viral disease of ruminants, mainly sheep and more frequently cattle, goats, buffalo, deer, dromedaries, and antelope. It is caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV).Culicoides imicola: Culicoides imicola is a midge which transmits the bluetongue virus. Other suspected BTV vectors are Culicoides (Culicoides) pulicaris and species in the Culicoides (Avaritia) obsoletus complex.Corriedale: Corriedale sheep are a dual purpose breed, meaning they are used both in the production of wool and meat. The Corriedale is the oldest of all the crossbred breeds, a Merino-Lincoln cross developed almost simultaneously in Australia and New ZealandStock Types, The Land, North Richmond, c.Kemerovo tickborne viral fever: Kemerovo tickborne viral fever is an aparalytic febrile illness accompanied by meningism following tick-bite.Hoogstraal, H.Reverse genetics: thumbnail|300px|[[Avian Flu vaccine development by Reverse Genetics techniques. Courtesy: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases]]Ruminant: Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions. The process typically requires the fermented ingesta (known as cud) to be regurgitated and chewed again.Deer farm: A deer farm is a fenced piece of land suitable for grazing that is populated with deer such as elk, moose, and even reindeer raised for the purpose of hunting tourism or as livestock. This practice is very different from the way such Arctic communities like the Laplanders migrate in open country with their herds of reindeer.Hexon protein: In molecular biology, the hexon protein is a major coat protein found in Adenoviruses. Hexon coat proteins are synthesised during late infection and form homo-trimers.Angora goat: The Angora goat () is a breed of domestic goat that is named after Ankara, Turkey, historically known as Angora. Angora goats produce the lustrous fibre known as mohair.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.RNA interference: RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression, typically by causing the destruction of specific mRNA molecules. Historically, it was known by other names, including co-suppression, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), and quelling.Mycovirus: Mycoviruses (ancient Greek μύκης mykes: fungus and Latin virus) are viruses that infect fungi. The majority of mycoviruses have double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes and isometric particles, but approximately 30% have positive sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) genomes.HHV capsid portal protein: HHV Capsid Portal Protein, or HSV-1 UL-6 protein, is the protein which forms a cylindrical portal in the capsid of Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). The protein is commonly referred to as the HSV-1 UL-6 protein because it is the transcription product of Herpes gene UL-6.NS3 (HCV): Nonstructural protein 3 (NS3), also known as p-70, is a viral nonstructural protein that is 70 kDa cleavage product of the hepatitis C virus polyprotein. It acts as a serine protease.Mountaineer Wind Energy Center: Mountaineer Wind Energy Center is a wind farm on Backbone Mountain in Preston and Tucker counties in the U.S.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.Generalized vaccinia: Generalized vaccinia is a cutaneous condition that occurs 6-9 days after vaccination, characterized by a generalized eruption of skin lesions, and caused by the vaccinia virus.Coles PhillipsMarker vaccine: A marker vaccine allows for immunological differentiation of infected from vaccinated individuals, and is also referred to as a DIVA vaccine in veterinary medicine (differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals). In practical terms, this is most often achieved by omitting an immunogenic antigen present in the pathogen being vaccinated against, thus creating a negative marker of vaccination.Viral structural protein: A viral structural protein is a viral protein that is a structural component of the mature virus.PolyhedrinCongenital hypertrophy of the lateral fold of the hallux: Congenital hypertrophy of the lateral fold of the hallux is a rare cutaneous condition of unknown pathology that present to newborns. The condition was "first described by Martinet et al.Ornithodoros erraticusRiboprobe: Riboprobes are RNA probes that can be produced by in vitro transcription of cloned DNA inserted in a suitable plasmid downstream of a viral promoter. Some bacterial viruses code for their own RNA polymerases, which are highly specific for the viral promoters.