BicarbonateIntravenous sodium bicarbonateAcid–base reaction: An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base. Several theoretical frameworks provide alternative conceptions of the reaction mechanisms and their application in solving related problems.Metabolic alkalosisAcidosisAlkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.List of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsTE buffer: TE buffer is a commonly used buffer solution in molecular biology, especially in procedures involving DNA, cDNA or RNA. "TE" is derived from its components: Tris, a common pH buffer, and EDTA, a molecule that chelates cations like Mg2+.Carbonic anhydrase: The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and protons (or vice versa), a reversible reaction that occurs relatively slowly in the absence of a catalyst. The active site of most carbonic anhydrases contains a zinc ion; they are therefore classified as metalloenzymes.Serum chloride: Chloride is an anion in the human body needed for metabolism (the process of turning food into energy). It also helps keep the body's acid-base balance.HyperchloremiaDiuretic: A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine. This includes forced diuresis.Respiratory acidosisSecretin receptor: Human secretin receptor (gene name SCTR) is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds secretin and is the leading member (i.e.Urine anion gap: The urine anion gap is calculated using measured ions found in the urine. It is used to aid in the differential diagnosis of metabolic acidosis.Fractional sodium excretion: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine. It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption.Respiratory alkalosisNatron: Natron is a naturally occurring mixture of sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na2CO3·10H2O, a kind of soda ash) and about 17% sodium bicarbonate (also called baking soda, NaHCO3) along with small quantities of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. Natron is white to colourless when pure, varying to gray or yellow with impurities.Distal renal tubular acidosis: Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) or Type 1 Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is the classical form of RTA, being the first described. Distal RTA is characterized by a failure of acid secretion by the alpha intercalated cells of the cortical collecting duct of the distal nephron.Retrograde perfusion: Retrograde perfusion is an artificial method of providing blood supply to an organ by delivering oxygenated blood through the veins. It may be performed during surgery that interrupts the normal arterial supply of blood to that organ.Actovegin: Actovegin is a highly filtered extract obtained from calf blood which enhances aerobic oxidation in mammals. This improves absorption of glucose and oxygen uptake in tissue, which may enhance physical performance and stamina.Proximal convoluted tubule: The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.Potassium hydrogenacetylenedicarboxylate: Potassium hydrogenacetylenedicarboxylate is a potassium salt with chemical formula KC4HO4 or K+·HC4O4−, often abbreviated as KHadc. It is often called potassium hydrogen acetylenedicarboxylate or monopotassium acetylenedicarboxylate.Hydrochloric acidPolyelectrolyteHalotolerance: Halotolerance is the adaptation of living organisms to conditions of high salinity.Walter Larcher, 2001 Halotolerant species tend to live in areas such as hypersaline lakes, coastal dunes, saline deserts, salt marshes, and inland salt seas and springs.SLC26A2: The SLC26A2 protein is a member of the solute carrier family. In humans, this transporter is encoded by the SLC26A2 gene.Mediated transportZinc ammonium chloride: Zinc ammonium chloride, also known as diammonium tetrachlorozincate(2-) (IUPAC name), is a zinc salt commonly used as a flux in the process of hot-dip galvanizing. The CAS registry number is 14639-97-5.Trans-tubular potassium gradient: The trans-tubular potassium gradient (TTKG) is an index reflecting the conservation of potassium in the cortical collecting ducts (CCD) of the kidneys. It is useful in diagnosing the causes of hyperkalemia or hypokalemia.Transcellular transport: Transcellular transport involves the transportation of solutes by a cell through a cell. One classic example is the movement of glucose from the intestinal lumen to extracellular fluid by epithelial cells.Sodium–hydrogen antiporter: The sodium–hydrogen antiporter or sodium–hydrogen exchanger is a membrane protein found in many cells, and especially in those of the nephron of the kidney. Specifically in the intercalary cells of the collecting duct.Osmoregulation: Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it keeps the organism's fluids from becoming too diluted or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis.Non-coordinating anion: Anions that interact weakly with cations are termed non-coordinating anions, although a more accurate term is 'weakly coordinating anion'. Non-coordinating anions are useful in studying the reactivity of electrophilic cations.Erepsin: Erepsin is a protein fraction found in the intestinal juices and contains a group of enzymes that digest peptones into amino acids. It is produced and secreted by the intestinal glands in the ileum and the pancreas.Ammonia transporterLactated Ringer's solution: Ringer's lactate solution, also known as Ringer-Locke's solution, is a solution that is isotonic with blood. It is intended for intravenous administration in humans, but in veterinary use may also be given subcutaneously.Sodium hexametaphosphateDiabetic ketoacidosisRenal cortexPulmonary gas pressures: The factors that determine the values for alveolar pO2 and pCO2 are:Trisodium citrateLactic acidosisGas analysis: Gas analysis could refer to any of the following:Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Peritoneal dialysisButyl acetate (disambiguation): Butyl acetate most often refers to n-butyl acetate. However, there are other isomers that may be considered to be butyl acetates:HypokalemiaUltrafiltered milk: Ultrafiltered milk (UF milk) is a subclassification of milk protein concentrate that is produced by passing milk under pressure through a thin, porous membrane to separate the components of milk according to their size, permitting greater efficiency in cheese making. Specifically, ultra filtration allows the smaller lactose, water, mineral, and vitamin molecules to pass through the membrane, while the larger protein and fat molecule (key components for making cheese) are retained and concentrated.Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.Pancreatic bud: The ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds (or pancreatic diverticula) are outgrowths of the duodenum during human embryogenesis. They join together to form the adult pancreas.DialysisSalting in: Salting in refers to the effect where increasing the ionic strength of a solution increases the solubility of some solute (such as a protein). This effect tends to be observed at lower ionic strengths.Kennel clubSteptoean positive carbon isotope excursion: The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) was a geological event which occurred about 500 million years ago at the end of the Cambrian Period. The SPICE event was a sudden reversal of the anoxia (lack of oxygen) that had steadily spread throughout the oceans during the Cambrian which also affected the atmosphere.Dilip Mahalanabis: Dilip Mahalanabis (born November 12, 1934Amorphous calcium carbonate: Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is the amorphous and least stable polymorph of calcium carbonate. ACC is monohydrate and is so unstable under normal conditions that aside from several specialized organisms it is not found naturally.Dialysis adequacy: In nephrology, dialysis adequacy is the measurement of renal dialysis for the purpose of determining dialysis treatment regime and to better understand the pathophysiology of renal dialysis. It is an area of considerable controversy in nephrology.Urea reduction ratio: For the Scottish river see: Urr WaterEagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.