Autoantibody: An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins. Many autoimmune diseases, (notably lupus erythematosus), are caused by such autoantibodies.Anti-dsDNA antibodies: Anti-dsDNA antibodies are a group of anti-nuclear antibodies and their target antigen is double stranded DNA. Blood tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence are routinely performed to detect anti-dsDNA antibodies in diagnostic laboratories.Autoimmune diseaseSystemic lupus erythematosus and pregnancy: For women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), pregnancy can present some particular challenges for both mother and child.CD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Protective autoimmunity: Protective autoimmunity is a condition in which cells of the adaptive immune system contribute to maintenance of the functional integrity of a tissue, or facilitate its repair following an insult. The term ‘protective autoimmunity’ was coined by Prof.PemphigusEva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8List of target antigens in pemphigoid: Circulating auto-antibodies in the human body can target normal parts of the skin leading to disease. This is a list of antigens in the skin that may become targets of circulating auto-antibodies leading to the various types of pemphigoid.Systemic sclerodermaSeroconversionCryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Rheumatoid factor: Rheumatoid factor (RF) is the autoantibody (antibody directed against an organism's own tissues) that was first found in rheumatoid arthritis. It is defined as an antibody against the Fc portion of IgG (an antibody against an antibody).Mortimer's disease: Mortimer's disease is a skin disease characterized by red blotchy patterns appearing all over the face and hands, and spreading through the body in an almost symmetrical pattern. The fact that there are no ulcers, and an absence of crust, indicate that this is a different entity than lupus vulgaris.Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemiaMir-638 microRNA precursor family: In molecular biology mir-638 microRNA is a short RNA molecule. MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other genes by several mechanisms.MALAT1-associated small cytoplasmic RNAThyroglobulin: Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric protein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland. Thyroglobulin protein accounts for approximately half of the protein content of the thyroid gland.Exercise therapy for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: Although they vary in particulars, polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis are idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM)primarily characterized by chronic inflammation] of human [[skeletal muscle tissueLundberg I. and Y-L Chung, 2000.Radiobinding assay: A radiobinding assay is a method of detecting and quantifying antibodies targeted towards a specific antigen. As such, it can be seen as the inverse of radioimmunoassay, which quantifies an antigen by use of corresponding antibodies.Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes: The Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD), is a collaborative type 1 diabetes research project funded by JDRF (formerly known as the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation). nPOD supports scientific investigators by providing, without cost, rare and difficult to obtain tissues beneficial to their research.Polyclonal B cell response: Polyclonal B cell response is a natural mode of immune response exhibited by the adaptive immune system of mammals. It ensures that a single antigen is recognized and attacked through its overlapping parts, called epitopes, by multiple clones of B cell.Autoimmune thyroiditisDermatomyositis: - (ILDS M33.910)Pulmonary-renal syndrome: Pulmonary-renal syndrome is a rare medical syndrome involving bleeding in the lungs and kidney damage (glomerulonephritis).Epitope mapping: Epitope mapping is the process of experimentally identifying the binding sites, or ‘epitopes’, of antibodies on their target antigens. Identification and characterization of the binding sites of antibodies can aid in the discovery and development of new therapeutics, vaccines, and diagnostics.Paraneoplastic syndrome: A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body but that, unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.Paraneoplastic Syndromes, 2011, Darnell & Posner These phenomena are mediated by humoral factors (by hormones or cytokines) excreted by tumor cells or by an immune response against the tumor.Coombs test: A Coombs test (also known as Coombs' test, antiglobulin test or AGT) is either of two clinical blood tests used in immunohematology and immunology. The two Coombs tests are the direct Coombs test (DCT, also known as direct antiglobulin test or DAT), and the indirect Coombs test (also known as indirect antiglobulin test or IAT).Iodothyronine deiodinase: Iodothyronine deiodinases ( and ) are a subfamily of deiodinase enzymes important in the activation and deactivation of thyroid hormones. Thyroxine (T4), the precursor of 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3) is transformed into T3 by deiodinase activity.Raji cell: Raji cell line is the first continuous human cell line from hematopoietic origin. The cell lines produce an unusual strain of Epstein-Barr virus which will both transform cord blood lymphocytes and induce early antigens in Raji cells.ACR score for rheumatoid arthritis: ACR score is a scale to measure change in rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. It is named after the American College of Rheumatology.Monoclonal antibody therapySymptoms and signs of Graves' disease: Virtually all the symptoms and signs of Graves' disease result from the direct and indirect effects of hyperthyroidism, with exceptions being Graves' ophthalmopathy, goitre and pretibial myxedema (which are caused by the autoimmune processes of Graves' disease). These clinical manifestations are dramatic and involve virtually every system in the body.Anti-idiotypic vaccine: Anti-idiotypic vaccines comprise antibodies that have three-dimensional immunogenic regions, designated idiotopes, that consist of protein sequences that bind to cell receptors. Idiotopes are aggregated into idiotypes specific of their target antigen.Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2Linear IgA bullous dermatosis: Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (also known as "Linear IgA dermatosis") is frequently associated with medication exposure, especially vancomycin, with men and women being equally affected.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).PolymyositisBullous small vessel vasculitis: Bullous small vessel vasculitis (also known as "Bullous variant of small vessel vasculitis") is a cutaneous condition in which patients with small vessel vasculitis will develop superimposed vesicles and bullae, especially on the distal extremities.Follicular cellUndifferentiated connective tissue diseasePeptide microarray: A peptide microarray (also commonly known as peptide chip or peptide epitope microarray) is a collection of peptides displayed on a solid surface, usually a glass or plastic chip. Peptide chips are used by scientists in biology, medicine and pharmacology to study binding properties and functionality and kinetics of protein-protein interactions in general.Apolipoprotein H: Apolipoprotein H (Apo-H), previously known as (β2-glycoprotein I, beta-2 glycoprotein I), is a multifunctional apolipoprotein that in humans is encoded by the APOH gene. One of its functions is to bind cardiolipin.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Coles PhillipsAutoimmune hepatitisRibonucleoprotein: Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) is a nucleoprotein that contains RNA, i.e.Suction blister: Suction blistering is a technique used in dermatology to treat chronic wounds, such as non-healing leg ulcers. When a wound is not healing properly, an autologous skin graft is the best option, to prevent rejection of the tissue.Epidermolysis bullosa acquisitaProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Gcn2: GCN2 (general control nonderepressible 2) is a serine/threonine-protein kinase that senses amino acid deﬁciency through binding to uncharged transfer RNA (tRNA). It plays a key role in modulating amino acid metabolism as a response to nutrient deprivation.Riedel's thyroiditisC1q domain: In molecular biology, the C1q domain is a conserved protein domain. C1q is a subunit of the C1 enzyme complex that activates the serum complement system.Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody: Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (anti-GBM Ab) is an antibody which is found in Goodpasture's syndrome but not found in microscopic polyangiitis.Fragment antigen-binding: The fragment antigen-binding (Fab fragment) is a region on an antibody that binds to antigens. It is composed of one constant and one variable domain of each of the heavy and the light chain.HLA-DQ: HLA-DQ (DQ) is a cell surface receptor protein found on antigen presenting cells. It is an αβ heterodimer of type MHC Class II.Addison's disease in canines: Addison's disease in canines refers to hypoadrenocorticism, or Addison's disease, when it occurs in canines. The first case of Addison's disease in dogs was recorded in 1953, over 100 years after it was described in humans by Thomas Addison.Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases: The Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases is a peer-reviewed medical journal. It is co-owned by the BMJ Group and the European League Against Rheumatism and covers all aspects of rheumatology, including musculoskeletal conditions, arthritis, and connective tissue diseases.GlomerulonephritisPulmonary alveolar proteinosisPMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.Framework region: In molecular biology, a framework region is a region in the variable domain of a protein which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and which is less "variable" than the CDR.HypersensitivityImmunoassay: An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule in a solution through the use of an antibody or immunoglobulin. The macromolecule detected by the immunoassay is often referred to as an "analyte" and is in many cases a protein.Relapsing linear acantholytic dermatosis: Relapsing linear acantholytic dermatosis is a cutaneous condition characterized by relapsing linear erosions and crusting, histologically identical to Hailey–Hailey disease. It is not to be confused with transient acantholytic dermatosis.