Primary and secondary antibodies: Primary and secondary antibodies are two groups of antibodies that are classified based on whether they bind to antigens or proteins directly or target another (primary) antibody that, in turn, is bound to an antigen or protein.Protozoan infection: Protozoan infections are parasitic diseases caused by organisms formerly classified in the Kingdom Protozoa. They include organisms classified in Amoebozoa, Excavata, and Chromalveolata.Monoclonal antibody therapyMicroneme: Micronemes are cellular organs, or organelles, possessed by Apicomplexa protozoans that are restricted to the apical third of the protozoan body. They are surrounded by a typical unit membrane.Oxymonad: The Oxymonads are a group of flagellated protozoa found exclusively in the intestines of termites and other wood-eating insects. Along with the similar parabasalid flagellates, they harbor the symbiotic bacteria that are responsible for breaking down cellulose.Avidity: In the context of biochemistry, avidity refers to the accumulated strength of multiple affinities of individual non-covalent binding interactions, such as between a protein receptor and its ligand, and is commonly referred to as functional affinity. As such, avidity is distinct from affinity, which describes the strength of a single interaction.Blepharisma japonicum: Blepharisma japonicum is a species of protozoans, that can be found either in water or soilHabitat of Japan.Anti-idiotypic vaccine: Anti-idiotypic vaccines comprise antibodies that have three-dimensional immunogenic regions, designated idiotopes, that consist of protein sequences that bind to cell receptors. Idiotopes are aggregated into idiotypes specific of their target antigen.Cryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Coles PhillipsAnti-dsDNA antibodies: Anti-dsDNA antibodies are a group of anti-nuclear antibodies and their target antigen is double stranded DNA. Blood tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence are routinely performed to detect anti-dsDNA antibodies in diagnostic laboratories.Kudoa thyrsites: Kudoa thyrsites is a myxosporean parasite of marine fishes. It has a worldwide distribution, and infects a wide range of host species.PlasmoDB: PlasmoDB is a biological database for the genus Plasmodium. The database is a member of the EuPathDB project.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Entamoeba histolytica: Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic protozoan, part of the genus Entamoeba. Predominantly infecting humans and other primates, E.SeroconversionAutoantibody: An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins. Many autoimmune diseases, (notably lupus erythematosus), are caused by such autoantibodies.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.Trypanosoma: Trypanosoma is a genus of kinetoplastids (class Kinetoplastida), a monophyletic group of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa. The name is derived from the Greek trypano- (borer) and soma (body) because of their corkscrew-like motion.Small nucleolar RNA-derived microRNA: In molecular biology, small nucleolar RNA derived microRNAs are microRNAs (miRNA) derived from small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA). MicroRNAs are usually derived from precursors known as pre-miRNAs, these pre-miRNAs are recognised and cleaved from a pri-miRNA precursor by the Pasha and Drosha proteins.SAG1 protein domain: In molecular biology, the SAG1 protein domain is an example of a group of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked proteins named SRSs (SAG1 related sequence). SAG1 is found on the surface of a protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.Trifunctional antibody: A trifunctional antibody is a monoclonal antibody with binding sites for two different antigens, typically CD3 and a tumor antigen, making it a type of bispecific monoclonal antibody. In addition, its intact Fc-part can bind to an Fc receptor on accessory cells like conventional monospecific antibodies.Leishmania aethiopica: Leishmania aethiopica is a Leishmania species.Single-chain variable fragment: A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) is not actually a fragment of an antibody, but instead is a fusion protein of the variable regions of the heavy (VH) and light chains (VL) of immunoglobulins, connected with a short linker peptide of ten to about 25 amino acids.Huston, J.CD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Raji cell: Raji cell line is the first continuous human cell line from hematopoietic origin. The cell lines produce an unusual strain of Epstein-Barr virus which will both transform cord blood lymphocytes and induce early antigens in Raji cells.Fragment antigen-binding: The fragment antigen-binding (Fab fragment) is a region on an antibody that binds to antigens. It is composed of one constant and one variable domain of each of the heavy and the light chain.Chromera velia: Chromera velia, also known as a "chromerid", is a unicellular photosynthetic organism in the superphylum Alveolata. It is of interest in the study of apicomplexan parasites, specifically their evolution and accordingly, their unique vulnerabilities to drugs.Mischocarpus pyriformis: Mischocarpus pyriformis, known as the pear fruited tamarind is a rainforest tree of eastern Australia. Occurring from Seal Rocks, New South Wales to as far north as Cooktown in tropical Queensland.Trypanosoma equiperdum: Τrypanosoma equiperdum is a protozoan parasite that causes Dourine or covering sickness in horses and other animals in the family equidae. Genetic analyses have revealed T.TenonitrozoleHeterophile: Heterophile antibodies are antibodies induced by external antigens (heterophile antigens).Haematractidium: Haematractidium is a genus of parasitic protozoa in the phylum Apicomplexa. It infects Atlantic mackrel (Scomber scombrus).Abzyme: An abzyme (from antibody and enzyme), also called catmab (from catalytic monoclonal antibody), and most often called catalytic antibody, is a monoclonal antibody with catalytic activity. Abzymes are usually raised in lab animals immunized against synthetic haptans, but some natural abzymes can be found in normal humans (anti-vasoactive intestinal peptide autoantibodies) and in patients with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, where they can bind to and hydrolyze DNA.Trypanosoma bruceiBodo people: (Assam)New Zealand rabbitIntestinal parasiteSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.BevacizumabTrichomonas gallinae: The protozoan Trichomonas gallinae is a cosmopolitan parasite of pigeons and doves. Other birds such as domestic and wild turkeys, chickens, raptors (hawks, golden eagle, etc.ImmunizationEpitope mapping: Epitope mapping is the process of experimentally identifying the binding sites, or ‘epitopes’, of antibodies on their target antigens. Identification and characterization of the binding sites of antibodies can aid in the discovery and development of new therapeutics, vaccines, and diagnostics.Crithidia luciliaeBehavior-altering parasites and parasitoids: Some parasites and parasitoids cause changes in the behavior of their hosts by directly affecting the hosts' decision-making and behavior control mechanisms. The acquired or modified behaviors assist in parasite transmission, and often result in the host's demise.History and naming of human leukocyte antigens: Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) began as a list of antigens identified as a result of transplant rejection. The antigens were initially identified by categorizing and performing massive statistical analyses on interactions between blood types.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Trichomonas vaginalis: Trichomonas vaginalis is an anaerobic, flagellated protozoan parasite and the causative agent of trichomoniasis. It is the most common pathogenic protozoan infection of humans in industrialized countries.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Trichomaris: Trichomaris is a genus of fungi in the family Halosphaeriaceae. This is a monotypic genus, containing the single species Trichomaris invadens.Immunoperoxidase: Immunoperoxidase is a type of immunostain used in molecular biology, medical research, and clinical diagnostics. In particular, immunoperoxidase reactions refer to a sub-class of immunohistochemical or immunocytochemical procedures in which the antibodies are visualized via a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Coccidiosis: Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract of animals caused by coccidian protozoa. The disease spreads from one animal to another by contact with infected feces or ingestion of infected tissue.Giardia: Giardia ( or ) is a genus of anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites of the phylum Sarcomastigophora that colonise and reproduce in the small intestines of several vertebrates, causing giardiasis. Their life cycle alternates between an actively swimming trophozoite and an infective, resistant cyst.Hyperimmune globulin: Hyperimmune globulin is similar to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) except that it is prepared from the plasma of donors with high titers of antibody against a specific organism or antigen. Some agents against which hyperimmune globulins are available include hepatitis B, rabies, tetanus toxin, varicella-zoster, etc.Leishmania donovani: Leishmania donovani is a species of intracellular parasitic protozoan belonging to the genus Leishmania, a group of haemoflagellate kinetoplastids that cause the disease leishmaniasis. It is a human blood parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar, the most severe form of leishmaniasis.Immunoassay: An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule in a solution through the use of an antibody or immunoglobulin. The macromolecule detected by the immunoassay is often referred to as an "analyte" and is in many cases a protein.Acanthamoeba infection: Acanthamoeba infection is a cutaneous condition resulting from Acanthamoeba that may result in various skin lesions. Acanthamoeba strains can also infect human eyes causing acanthamoebic keratitis.Cryptosporidium parvum: Cryptosporidium parvum is one of several protozoal species that cause cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic disease of the mammalian intestinal tract.Alpha Serpentis