*  Sustained cell polarity and virulence in the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis depends on an essential cyclin-dependent...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinson's disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parson's lab at King's College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinson's. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
  http://jcs.biologists.org/content/early/2007/04/03/jcs.005314
*  Polar growth in the infectious hyphae of the phytopathogen ustilago maydis depends on a virulence-specific cyclin - The...
The maize smut fungus Ustilago maydis switches from yeast to hyphal growth to infect maize (Zea mays) plants. This switching is promoted by mating of compatible cells and seems to be required for plant penetration. Although many genes distinctively expressed during this dimorphic switch have been identified and shown to be essential for the infection process, none seems to be explicitly required for polar growth control. Here, we report the characterization of pcl12, encoding a cyclin that interacts specifically with Cdk5, an essential cyclin-dependent kinase with regulatory roles in morphogenesis in U. maydis. Pcl12 fulfills the requirements to be a virulence-specific regulator of polar growth in U. maydis. First, pcl12 expression is induced during the pathogenic development. Secondly, Pcl12 is sufficient to induce hyperpolarized growth in U. maydis cells, as haploid cells overexpressing pcl12 in axenic conditions produce filaments that were morphologically ...
  http://christie.openrepository.com/christie/handle/10541/72846
*  Shuttle vectors for genetic manipulations in Ustilago maydis.
Abstract Shuttle vectors with new or improved features were constructed to enable facile genetic manipulations in the plant pathogen Ustilago maydis. Sets of plasmids selectable in..
  https://www.omicsonline.org/references/shuttle-vectors-for-genetic-manipulations-in-ustilago-maydis-1277424.html
*  PLOS Pathogens: Septation of Infectious Hyphae Is Critical for Appressoria Formation and Virulence in the Smut Fungus Ustilago...
Author Summary Pathogens exhibit various developmental stages during the process of infection and proliferation. The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis is a model organism for plant pathogenic fungi. On the plant surface U. maydis grows as a cell-cycle arrested filament. Growth of infectious hyphae involves regular formation of retraction septa leaving empty sections behind. The tip cell forms an appressorium and penetrates the cuticle. In this study we identified for the first time a signaling module regulating formation of retraction septa in fungal hyphae. The module consists of the highly conserved small GTPase Cdc42, its activator Don1 and the actin-organizing formin Drf1. After penetration of the plant, cell cycle arrest is released and hyphal septation is resumed in planta but was found to be independent of Cdc42 and Drf1. Thus, during infection Cdc42 signaling and Drf1 coordinate hyphal septation events specifically in infectious hyphae in U. maydis. The inability to form retraction septa ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/authors?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1002044&imageURI=info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002044.g007
*  PLOS Pathogens: Septation of Infectious Hyphae Is Critical for Appressoria Formation and Virulence in the Smut Fungus Ustilago...
Author Summary Pathogens exhibit various developmental stages during the process of infection and proliferation. The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis is a model organism for plant pathogenic fungi. On the plant surface U. maydis grows as a cell-cycle arrested filament. Growth of infectious hyphae involves regular formation of retraction septa leaving empty sections behind. The tip cell forms an appressorium and penetrates the cuticle. In this study we identified for the first time a signaling module regulating formation of retraction septa in fungal hyphae. The module consists of the highly conserved small GTPase Cdc42, its activator Don1 and the actin-organizing formin Drf1. After penetration of the plant, cell cycle arrest is released and hyphal septation is resumed in planta but was found to be independent of Cdc42 and Drf1. Thus, during infection Cdc42 signaling and Drf1 coordinate hyphal septation events specifically in infectious hyphae in U. maydis. The inability to form retraction septa ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/related?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1002044&imageURI=info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002044.g006
*  Ustilagic acid - Wikipedia
Ustilagic acid is an organic compound with the formula C36H64O18. The acid is a cellobiose lipid produced by the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis under conditions of nitrogen starvation. The acid was discovered in 1950 and was proved to be an amphipathic glycolipid with surface active properties. The name comes from Latin ustus which means burnt and refers to the scorched appearance of the smut fungi. Cellobiose lipids are known as biosurfactants and natural detergents. They can be used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food applications and are known for their strong fungicidal activity on many species.The yeast Pseudozyma fusiformata and Pseudozyma graminicola secrete ustilagic acids, 2-O-3-hydroxyhexanoyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→16)-2,15,16- trihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. Similar compounds are the extracellular cellobiose lipids of the yeasts Cryptococcus humicola and Trichosporon porosum : ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ustilagic_acid
*  A gene that encodes a product with similarity to dioxygenases is highly expressed in teliospores of Ustilago maydis :: MPG.PuRe...
Autor: Huber, S. M. F. E. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2002-08; Keywords: Ustilago maydis; teliospores; dioxygenase; cAMP; lipid bodies; Titel: A gene that encodes a product with similarity to dioxygenases is highly expressed in teliospores of Ustilago maydis
  http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/pubman/faces/viewItemOverviewPage.jsp?itemId=escidoc:1582036
*  'rna fungal' Protocols and Video...
Video articles in JoVE about rna fungal include 'RNAi-mediated Control of Aflatoxins in Peanut: Method to Analyze Mycotoxin Production and Transgene Expression in the Peanut/Aspergillus Pathosystem', ' Modeling Asthma and Influenza Co-morbidity in C57BL/6J Mice ', 'Genetic Manipulation of the Plant Pathogen Ustilago maydis to Study Fungal Biology and Plant Microbe Interactions', 'Purification of High Molecular Weight Genomic DNA from Powdery Mildew for Long-Read Sequencing', 'Isolation of Native Soil Microorganisms with Potential for Breaking Down Biodegradable Plastic Mulch Films Used in Agriculture', 'Robust DNA Isolation and High-Throughput Sequencing Library Construction for Herbarium Specimens', 'Empirical, Metagenomic, and Computational Techniques Illuminate the Mechanisms by which Fungicides Compromise Bee Health', 'Establishment of an In vitro System to Study Intracellular Behavior of Candida glabrata in Human THP-1 Macrophages', 'Biolistic Transformation of a Fluorescent Tagged Gene ...
  https://www.jove.com/keyword/rna+fungal
*  Ustilago.-Corn-Smut. | Henriette's Herbal Homepage
COMMON NAMES: Corn-smut, Corn-ergot, Corn-brand.. Source, Formation, and History.-Ustilago is a parasitic fungus infesting the fruit of the common corn plant (Zea Mays, Linné). The "smutted" ear of corn appears blackened and shrivelled, the fungus, called Ustilago, from its burnt or charred appearance, exhibiting a smooth, gelatiniform membrane, containing a soot-like powder of minute, dark, spherical spores. Ustilago attacks many plants, as the ears of wheat, oats, and barley, and also various grasses, figs, violets, anemones, etc. The particular species infesting the ears of corn, is the Ustilago segetum, Bull. The condition produced is known popularly as the "smut of corn," or "brand of corn." The attack actually begins with the germination of the corn plant, for the hyphae of the fungus-spores enter the seedling when very young, and grow up within the plant, but does not manifest itself until the fruit begins to ripen, when the ears take ...
  https://www.henriettes-herb.com/eclectic/kings/ustilago.html
*  PLOS Genetics: The SPF27 Homologue Num1 Connects Splicing and Kinesin 1-Dependent Cytoplasmic Trafficking in Ustilago maydis
Author Summary In eukaryotic cells, nascent mRNA is processed by splicing to remove introns and to join the exon sequences. The processed mRNA is then transported out of the nucleus and employed by ribosomes to synthesize proteins. Splicing is achieved by the spliceosome and associated protein complexes, among them the so-called NineTeen complex (NTC). We have identified the Num1 protein as one of the core components of the NTC in the fungus Ustilago maydis, and could show that it is required for polarized growth of the filamentous fungal cells. Consistent with the NTC function, cells with a num1-deletion show reduced splicing of mRNA. Moreover, we uncover a novel cytoplasmic function of the Num1 protein: It physically interacts with the microtubule-associated Kinesin 1 motor protein, and phenotypic analyses corroborate that both proteins are functionally connected. Our findings reveal a yet unidentified role of a global splicing factor during intracellular trafficking processes. A possible ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article/figure?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1004046.g001
*  mediaTUM - Medien- und Publikationsserver
Programmed cell death is a key feature of epidermal plant immunity, which is particularly effective against biotrophic microbes that depend on living host tissue. The covered smut fungus Ustilago hordei establishes a compatible biotrophic interaction with its host plant barley. The maize smut U. maydis triggers a nonhost response in barley, which results in epidermal cell death. Similarly, Ustilago mutants being deleted for pep1, a gene encoding a secreted effector, are blocked upon host penetration. We studied the epidermal responses of barley to incompatible Ustilago strains. Molecular and cellular analyses were used to test the impact of Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1), a suppressor of programmed cell death, on the barley nonhost resistance to U. maydis as well as Ustilago \textgreek{D}pep1 mutants. Overexpression of BI-1 resulted in partial break of barley nonhost resistance to U. maydis. By contrast, the epidermal cell death response triggered ...
  http://mediatum.ub.tum.de/1379819
*  A role for the DNA-damage checkpoint kinase Chk1 in the virulence program of the fungus Ustilago maydis | Journal of Cell...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinson's disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parson's lab at King's College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinson's. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
  http://jcs.biologists.org/content/early/2009/10/27/jcs.052233
*  Das Num1-Protein in Ustilago maydis: Regulation intrazellulärer Transportvorgänge durch einen globalen Splicing-Faktor
The NineTeen complex (NTC) is required for intron removal during splicing. Num1 is a conserved NTC component in Ustilago maydis. It is required for polarized growth of fungal hyphae and affects numerous NTC functions, particularly splicing is influenced on a global scale. Num1 interacting proteins include proteins with functions during trafficking like the Kin1 motor-protein, implicating novel connections between splicing and cytoplasmic transport processes ...
  https://publikationen.bibliothek.kit.edu/1000035055
*  Ustilago. | Henriette's Herbal Homepage
Preparations.-Specific Medicine Ustilago. Dose, 1 to 60 drops.. Specific Indications.-Feeble spinal and sympathetic innervation; feeble capillary and venous circulation; impaired circulation of cerebrum, with dizziness and unsteadiness; uterine derangements with excessive flow of blood or other discharges; lax genital tissues, with uterine pain; pain in top of head; uterine inertia; post partum and passive hemorrhages.. Action.-This fungus unquestionably possesses power, acting as a spinal excitant and producing convulsions and destroying life either by tetanus or exhaustion. It dilates the pupils. Upon animals it acts as an abortifacient and produces a shedding of hair, hoofs and horns. Its action has been compared to that of ergot and nux vomica combined.. Therapy.-Ellingwood is authority for the statement that ustilago is preferable to ergot as a parturient because it produces intermittent (clonic) instead of tonic contractions; and decreases after-pains, conduces to ...
  https://www.henriettes-herb.com/eclectic/felter/ustilago.html
*  Ustilago maydis populations tracked maize through domestication and cultivation in the Americas | Proceedings of the Royal...
We show that the domestication of maize in Mexico and later expansion of maize throughout the Americas had a dramatic and lasting impact on the evolution of corn smut populations. Although U. maydis interacted with its grass hosts over millions of years (Munkacsi et al. 2007), extant U. maydis populations date not much older than the time of maize domestication at 6000-10 000 ybp (reviewed in Staller et al. 2006). Furthermore, the results for dates of divergence, population structure and historical demographic processes show a history of U. maydis populations closely associated with that of maize domestication and early cultivation throughout the Americas.. Our results do not provide support for the null hypothesis that maize domestication had little impact on the genetic structure of U. maydis populations. The earliest population divergence times dated to only ca 10 000 ybp and were found in comparisons that included the Z. m. ssp. parviglumis-infecting AG-T population. While such recent dates ...
  http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1638/1037
*  iDigBio Portal
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  http://beta-portal.idigbio.org/portal/records/6373cc67-f2b3-404c-bd48-b11d5d1f96ce
*  ATM1 - Iron-sulfur clusters transporter ATM1, mitochondrial precursor - Ustilago maydis (strain 521 / FGSC 9021) (Corn smut...
Performs an essential function in the generation of cytoplasmic iron-sulfur proteins by mediating the ATP-dependent export of Fe/S cluster precursors synthesized by NFS1 and other mitochondrial proteins. Hydrolyzes ATP. Binds glutathione and may function by transporting a glutathione-conjugated iron-sulfur compound (By similarity).
  http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q4PH16
*  Most recent papers with the keyword ustilago | Read by QxMD
While mechanisms of cytokinesis exhibit considerable plasticity, it is difficult to precisely define the level of conservation of this essential part of cell division in fungi, as majority of our knowledge is based on ascomycetous yeasts. However, in the last decade more details have been uncovered regarding cytokinesis in the second largest fungal phylum, basidiomycetes, specifically in two yeasts, Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis. Based on these findings, and current sequenced genomes, we summarize cytokinesis in basidiomycetous yeasts, indicating features that may be unique to this phylum, species-specific characteristics, as well as mechanisms that may be common to all eukaryotes ...
  https://www.readbyqxmd.com/keyword/59678
*  "Nuclear Condition in Ustilago Filaments and Teliospores" by Karen M. Snetselaar
Snetselaar, Karen M., Carlos Carre, and Michael P. McCann. "Nuclear Condition in Ustilago Filaments and Teliospores." Joint Meeting of Mycological Soc. of Amer. and British Mycological Soc. Asilomar, CA. 2003. Conference Presentation.. ...
  http://scholarship.sju.edu/bio_fac/269/
*  Definition for genus ustilago
genus ustilago definition: kind genus regarding the Ustilaginaceae; genus comprising the free smuts; kind genus of Ustilaginaceae; genus comprising the free smuts; type genus associated with Ustilaginaceae;…
  https://www.azdictionary.com/definition/genus%20ustilago
*  Ustilago Species - Doctor Fungus
Colonies of Ustilago grow slowly and mature in 20 days. They are moist and yeast-like. The colonies later become wrinkled and membrane-like with profuse budding in the medium. The color is cream to yellow initially and becomes tan to dark brown in time. Reverse is pale [1295, 2202].. ...
  http://msgercdoctorfungus.com/knowledge-base/ustilago-species/
*  Wielding the subtle weapons of a fungus | Max Planck Society
In Mexico the galls of Ustilago maydis are considered to be a delicacy. To farmers in most other countries however, the tumours that develop on the maize cob are regarded as a nuisance. The fungus is certainly not poisonous, which means that infected maize plants can easily be used as cattle fodder, but are not suitable for maize meal or popcorn. The US agricultural authorities in particular have been trying to combat the fungus for a long time, so far to no avail.. A team of almost 80 scientists from all over the world has now made significant headway. The researchers investigated the genome of the fungus to discover how it damages the plant. In the process they identified many genes which contain blueprints for secreted proteins. The fungus expels these proteins. Some of these genes are located adjacent to each other in the genome, forming clusters. This indicates that they might be involved in one and the same process. 'If they hadn't been present in clusters, we would probably not have ...
  https://www.mpg.de/536170/pressRelease20061114
*  Organic Eprints - Items affiliated to " Germany | Institute for Biodynamic Research - IBDF | Organic Plant Breeding and Crop...
Leithold, Dr. B.; Weber, Prof. Dr. W.E.; Schulz, F. and Leithold, Prof. Dr. G. (2009) Ertrag und Qualität von Winterweizengenotypen unter integrierten und ökologischen Anbaubedingungen. Paper at: 10. Wissenschaftstagung Ökologischer Landbau, Zürich, 11.-13. Februar 2009. Linnemann, Ludger (2015) Kriterien für den Anbau von Weizen Rubrik Forschung Forschung aus biologisch-dynamischer Züchtung. Die Back- oder Verarbeitungsqualität. Lebendige Erde, 2015, 2/2015, pp. 40-44. Lorenz, N.; Klause, S.; Müller, K.-J. and Spieß, H. (2006) Sortenevaluierung in Deutschland zugelassener Wintergersten (Hordeum vulgare) hinsichtlich Flugbrand-Resistenz (Ustilago nuda) und Hartbrandresistenz (Ustilago hordei). In: 55. Deutsche Pflanzenschutztagung in Göttingen, 25. - 28. September 2006, Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, D-Berlin und D-Braunschweig, Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem, no. 400, pp. 333-334. Lorenz, ...
  http://orgprints.org/view/projects/ibdf-plant-breeding.creators_name.html
*  Refuge Notebook: Kenai's namesake smut
The reader may wonder what smut fungi are and why they matter. A grain farmer could tell you: smuts can cause large losses in corn, barley, and wheat.. Smut fungi are named for the black, sooty spores produced by their fruiting bodies. The over 1,400 species of smuts parasitize a wide variety of plants, mostly grasses. Smuts of grasses and sedges generally do not kill their hosts. Instead, they hijack the plant's reproductive system, converting seed heads into spore factories. Spores of corn smut begin their infection by growing between cells of the corn plant, usually on young leaves and kernels. As the disease progresses, the fungus penetrates cells of the host, eventually filling most of the infected tissue with fungal cells. These areas swell, forming large, conspicuous gray to black galls so that an infected ear of corn will be bursting with swollen, distorted gray galls instead of the usual yellow kernels. Mature galls disintegrate into a dark, sooty powder of new spores, each gall ...
  http://peninsulaclarion.com/outdoors/2013-08-22/refuge-notebook-kenais-namesake-smut