*  Integration of reinforcement learning and optimal decision making theories of the basal ganglia
This paper seeks to integrate two sets of theories describing action selection in the basal ganglia: reinforcement learning theories describing learning which actions to select to maximize reward, and decision making theories proposing that the basal ganglia selects actions on the basis of sensory evidence accumulated in the cortex. In particular, we present a model that integrates the actor-critic model of reinforcement learning and a model assuming that the cortico-basal-ganglia circuit implements a statistically optimal decision making procedure. The values of corico-striatal weights required for optimal decision making in our model differ from that provided by standard reinforcement learning models. Nevertheless, we show that an actor-critic model converges to the weights required for optimal decision making, when biologically realistic limits on synaptic weights are introduced. We also describe the modela??s predictions concerning reaction times and ...
*  TV Guide - Britney Spears Confirms X Factor Exit: It Was a "Difficult Decision" - News - The Kansan - Newton, KS - Newton, KS
Britney Spears has broken her silence on her X Factor exit, describing it as 'a very difficult decision.' 'I've made the very difficult decision not to return for another season,' she said in a statement Friday. 'I had an incredible time doing the show and I love the other judges and I am so proud of my teens but it's time for me to get back in the studio. Watching them all do their thing up on that stage every week made me miss performing so much! I can't wait to get back out there and
*  Articles about Difficult Decision - tribunedigital-orlandosentinel
Difficult Decision News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Difficult Decision From The tribunedigital-orlandosentinel
*  Group decision making on water resources based on analysis of individual rankings
Downloadable (with restrictions)! In problems to do with managing water resources multiple decision makers are involved, each acting in their own right and using different value systems. In the literature on management science, several procedures are proposed in order to establish a collective preference based on the aggregation of different individual preferences. However, the well-known methods that focus on a single winner have some inconveniences that should be addressed. This paper is focused on a group decision making procedure based on the analysis of individual rankings with the aim of choosing an appropriate alternative for a water resources problem. This alternative is found to be the best compromise from the points of view of all actors involved in the decision problem. The structure of the method is set out as is its application to the water resources problem. A comparison with other methods is presented and discussed.
*  HCPA - Health Care Power of Attorney (medical decision making) | AcronymFinder
How is Health Care Power of Attorney (medical decision making) abbreviated? HCPA stands for Health Care Power of Attorney (medical decision making). HCPA is defined as Health Care Power of Attorney (medical decision making) somewhat frequently.
*  Applying Decision-Making Models in Health Care...solve
(A)(Benchmark Assignment) Applying Decision-Making Models in Health CareThis is a benchmark assignment.Choose an ethical decision-making model from among the fo
*  A Double Blind Crossover Study on the Effect of MPH on Decision-making Ability of Adults With BPD Compared to Adults With ADHD...
a computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (Bechara et al. 1994), which assesses reward learning. In this task the participant is presented with four decks of cards on the computer screen. Each card yields a reward, but might also cast a loss. In each trial, the participant selects a card out of one of the four decks by clicking on it. Consequently, the card is exposed, displaying the gain and the loss for that trial. The accumulated total amount is presented at the bottom of the screen all along, and is updated after every trial. Through contingent feedback, participants are expected to learn that decks A and B yield constant large gains but also larger losses, so that their net loss across trials is 2,500 tokens, whereas decks C and D yield smaller gains but also smaller losses, leading to a net gain across trials of 2,500 ...
*  The Influence of Social Dependencies on Decision-Making: Initial Investigations with a New Game
This paper describes a new multi-player computer game, Colored Trails (CT), which may be played by people, computers and heterogeneous groups. CT was designed to enable investigation of properties of decision-making strategies in multi-agent situations of varying complexity. The paper presents the results of an initial series of experiments of CT games in which agents' choices affected not only their own outcomes but also the outcomes of other agents. It compares the behavior of people with that of computer agents deploying a variety of decision-making strategies. The results align with behavioral economics studies in showing that people cooperate when they play and that factors of social dependency influence their levels of cooperation. Preliminary results indicate that people design agents to play strategies closer to game-theory predictions, yielding lower utility. Additional experiments show that such agents perform worse than agents designed to make choices that resemble human cooperative ...
*  Using Evidence for Public Health Decision Making: Violence Prevention Focused on Children and Youth - PDF
Using Evidence for Public Health Decision Making: Violence Prevention Focused on Children and Youth Community Guide Slide Modules These slides are designed to be used with overview slides also available
*  Study of Bacteria Throws Light on Human Decision Making
By studying bacteria which are living under stressful conditions, scientists have gained fresh insights into the manner of human decision making, especially crucial ones.
*  山がある方が北だよ: 10月 2013
Many decisions we make require visually identifying and evaluating numerous alternatives quickly. These usually vary in reward, or value, and in low-level visual properties, such as saliency. Both saliency and value influence the final decision. In particular, saliency affects fixation locations and durations, which are predictive of choices. However, it is unknown how saliency propagates to the final decision. Moreover, the relative influence of saliency and value is unclear. Here we address these questions with an integrated model that combines a perceptual decision process about where and when to look with an economic decision process about what to choose. The perceptual decision process is modeled as a drift-diffusion model (DDM) process for each alternative. Using psychophysical data from a multiple-alternative, forced-choice task, in which subjects have to pick one food item from a crowded display via eye movements, we test four models where each DDM process is driven by (i) saliency or ...
*  Balancing obligations: should written information about life-sustaining treatment be neutral? | Journal of Medical Ethics
The most widely endorsed approach in counselling and decision-making involving parents of seriously ill or dying children is that of 'shared decision-making'.37-40 There are variations to the shared decision-making model but, in general terms, it involves parents to varying degrees with decisions made in accordance both with their preferred style of decision-making41 and the context within which the decision is being made.33 While researchers may develop clear-cut categories regarding decision-making models,42 parents themselves often think of shared decision-making in different ways.1 The spectrum of parental involvement ranges from parent involvement in discussions but end-of-life decisions made by medical professionals,41 through consensus decision-making by parents and health professionals together,42 to final decisions being made largely or entirely by parents43 with professional support.. There are several reasons why the shared decision-making model is appropriate for life-sustaining ...
*  PA-11-198: Understanding Clinical Information Needs and Health Care Decision Making Processes in the Context of Health...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Understanding Clinical Information Needs and Health Care Decision Making Processes in the Context of Health Information Technology (IT) (R01) PA-11-198. AHRQ
*  The Effect of Decentralized Behavioral Decision Making on System-Level Risk Kim Kaivanto Department of Economics Lancaster...
Outline Classical SDT under normative rationality Behavioral factors From the decision-making literature: CPT From the phishing & deception literatures Re-derivation of optimal cutoff threshold under CPT-SDT Using T&K92 probability weighting function Using neo-additive probability weighting function Incorporating the psychology of deception Beyond comparative statics: comparative simulation results Implications Spam filtering Education & training End
*  Four Tips on Decision Making from Jeff Bezos - Destination Innovation
To keep the energy and dynamism of Day 1, you have to somehow make high-quality, high-velocity decisions. Easy for start-ups and very challenging for large organizations. The senior team at Amazon is determined to keep our decision-making velocity high. Speed matters in business - plus a high-velocity decision making environment is more fun too. We don't know all the answers, but here are some thoughts.. First, never use a one-size-fits-all decision-making process. Many decisions are reversible, two-way doors. Those decisions can use a light-weight process. For those, so what if you're wrong? I wrote about this in more detail in last year's letter.. Second, most decisions should probably be made with somewhere around 70% of the information you wish you had. If you wait for 90%, in most cases, you're probably being slow. Plus, either way, you need to be good at quickly recognizing and correcting bad decisions. If you're good at course correcting, being wrong may be less costly than you think, ...
*  A Consumer Decision-Making Model in M-Commerce: The Role of Reputation Systems in Mobile App Purchases: Library & Information...
A Consumer Decision-Making Model in M-Commerce: The Role of Reputation Systems in Mobile App Purchases: 10.4018/IRMJ.2016040103: The objective of this paper is to understand the importance of mobile reputation systems in mobile users' app discovery and purchase satisfaction. A
*  Salience signals in the right temporoparietal junction facilitate value-based decisions.
Value-based decisions optimize the relation of costs and benefits. Costs and benefits confer not only value but also salience, which may influence decision making through attentional mechanisms. However, the computational and neurobiological role of
*  Patient Participation In Decision Making Associated With Increased Costs, Services - Redorbit
A survey of almost 22,000 admitted patients at the University of Chicago Medical Center found patient preference to participate in decision making concerning their care was associated with a longer length of stay and higher total hospitalization costs, according to a report published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.. Hyo Jung Tak, Ph.D., and colleagues examined the relationship between patient preferences for participation in medical decision making and health care utilization among patients hospitalized between July 1, 2003 and August 31, 2011 by asking patients to complete a survey. The survey data were then linked with administrative data, including length of stay and total hospitalization costs. Nearly all of the patients indicated they wanted information about their illnesses and treatment options, but just over 70 percent preferred to leave the medical decisions to their physician. "Preference to participate in medical decision making increased with educational level and with private ...
*  Unilateral medial frontal cortex lesions cause a cognitive decision-making deficit in rats. - PSY
The medial frontal cortex (MFC) is critical for cost-benefit decision-making. Generally, cognitive and reward-based behaviour in rodents is not thought to be lateralised within the brain. In this study, however, we demonstrate that rats with unilateral MFC lesions show a profound change in decision-making on an effort-based decision-making task. Furthermore, unilateral MFC lesions have a greater effect when the rat has to choose to put in more effort for a higher reward when it is on the contralateral side of space to the lesion. Importantly, this could not be explained by motor impairments as these animals did not show a turning bias in separate experiments. In contrast, rats with unilateral dopaminergic midbrain lesions did exhibit a motoric turning bias, but were unimpaired on the effort-based decision-making task. This rare example of a cognitive deficit caused by a unilateral cortical lesion in the rat brain indicates that the MFC may have a specialised and lateralised role in evaluating the costs
*  Functional specialization of the primate frontal cortex during decision making. - Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging
Economic theories of decision making are based on the principle of utility maximization, and reinforcement-learning theory provides computational algorithms that can be used to estimate the overall reward expected from alternative choices. These formal models not only account for a large range of behavioral observations in human and animal decision makers, but also provide useful tools for investigating the neural basis of decision making. Nevertheless, in reality, decision makers must combine different types of information about the costs and benefits associated with each available option, such as the quality and quantity of expected reward and required work. In this article, we put forward the hypothesis that different subdivisions of the primate frontal cortex may be specialized to focus on different aspects of dynamic decision-making processes. In this hypothesis, the lateral prefrontal cortex is primarily involved in maintaining the state representation necessary to identify optimal actions in a
*  Expert Decision Making on Opioid Treatment - Jane Ballantyne; David J. Tauben - Oxford University Press
Over the last several decades opioid treatment for chronic pain has become increasingly popular. From the sense that chronic pain had previously been undertreated, to drug companies anxious to sell new designer opioids, usage has increased several-fold. In its unfortunate history non-specialists were persuaded to prescribe opioids before they could possibly understand the complexity of the treatment.
*  Lake Country catchment review making its way back to school board for final decision - Kelowna Capital News
After months of meetings and feedback, a final decision on new catchment areas for the three Lake Country elementary schools will go to the Central Okanagan School Board in the next two months.. The Central Okanagan School District held a final public consultation Thursday night in Lake Country where two different options for the new catchment areas were presented to the public.. Both options are very similar and would re-direct students living in the SouthWest quadrant of Lake Country (south of Seaton Road and west of the highway) that are currently in the Davidson Road catchment to Peter Greer Elementary. Students in the Woodsdale Flats area would be sent to Oyama Traditional School as opposed to their current catchment of Peter Greer.. The only difference in the two options is a development known as Sage Glen, where just 14 students currently reside. Those students, and any new students in that specific development, are either going to be in the Davidson Road catchment or the Peter Greer ...
*  Brain Cells Hold Key to Decision Making: Study
Researchers have discovered that two neurons in the brain hold the key to explaining how complex behavioral decisions are made.. Get the Free Tracker App to find a Nintendo Switch in Stock. In this study, scientists monitored the snails' behavior while they made decisions in their search for food.. "Our study reveals for the first time how just two neurons can create a mechanism in an animal's brain which drives and optimizes complex decision making tasks," said lead researchers George Kemenes, Professor at the University of Sussex in Britain.. They then measured the activity in the snail's brain by using electrodes to record small electrical changes, called action potentials, in individual neurons.. The results showed a controller type neuron which lets the snail's brain know potential food is present and a second neuron which transmits signals telling the snail's brain what it's motivational state is, i.e., whether it's hungry or not.. Also, the system created by the neurons was found to ...
*  School Board to make final decision on school start times | Juneau Empire - Alaska's Capital City Online Newspaper
The Juneau School Board is poised to make its final decision Tuesday on whether or not to shuffle school start times around in the fall.
*  FEI Tribunal publishes Final Decision in Endurance prohibited substance case - We Live Horse
The FEI Tribunal last night (Friday) published its Final Decision in the case against the Iranian rider Abdulla Mahmood Abdulla Darban (FEI ID 10044343). Samples taken from the horse Lunatica (FEI ID 103JV94/QAT), which finished fourth at the CEI1* in Doha (QAT) on 2 May 2015, returned positive for two prohibited substances, Propranolol and Dexamethasone.…