*  Negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus - Wikipedia
... parainfluenza viruses, influenza viruses, Ebola virus, Marburg virus are included within the NSV. The life cycle of NSV has a ... "Sendai Virus and Simian Virus 5 Block Activation of Interferon-Responsive Genes: Importance for Virus Pathogenesis". Journal of ... includes Measles virus, Mumps virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and NDV Family Pneumoviridae - includes RSV and Metapneumovirus ... Viruses of the family Tenuivirus only infect plants. A few viruses known to infect humans include Marburg virus, Ebola, measles ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negative-sense_single-stranded_RNA_virus
*  Norton Anti-Virus 2004 and activation??
It has activation and slows down your system. Ever notice any bugs in your copy of 2004?? ... Also this evening, when I opened up my e-mail, Outlook Express Norton found 10 new viruses (worms) that are the latest threat. ... real time virus scan) has used a whole THREE seconds of CPU time, and used a peak memory of 14.3 megs (that was during a virus ... imo Norton AV has always been a resource hog, although this activation is news to me.. just makes me all the more glad i use ...
  https://forums.tweaktown.com/applications/15550-norton-anti-virus-2004-activation.html
*  NIH Guide: REGULATION OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) ACTIVATION IN THE LUNG
In turn, HIV infection either alone or in the presence of other viruses has been shown in vitro to influence regulation of ... Several factors, both intrinsic to the virus and external, have been proposed to influence the activation of HIV in the lung. ... Full Text HL-96-008 REGULATION OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) ACTIVATION IN THE LUNG NIH GUIDE, Volume 25, Number 4, ... This Request for Applications (RFA), Regulation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Activation in the Lung, is related to the ...
  https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-HL-96-008.html
*  Higher polymerase activity of a human influenza virus enhances activation of the hemagglutinin-induced Raf/MEK/ERK signal...
We studied the induction of MAPK signal cascade by two seasonal human influenza A viruses A/HK/218449/06 (H3N2) and A/HK/218847 ... The virus-induced Raf/MEK/ERK (MAPK) signal cascade is crucial for efficient virus replication. Blockade of this pathway ... induced greater ERK activation, resulting in increased nuclear export of the viral genome and higr virus titers. We conclude ... Infection with H3N2 virus, which replicates efficiently, resulted in higher HA expression and its accumulation on the cell ...
  https://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-422X-4-134
*  Viruses | Free Full-Text | PKR Activation Favors Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus Replication in Infected Cells
These findings suggest that IPNV uses PKR activation to promote virus replication in infected cells. ... We investigated the involvement of PKR during infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) infection using a custom-made rabbit ... PKR inhibitor pre-treatment resulted in decreased virus titers, extra- and intracellularly, concomitant with reduction of cells ... PKR Activation Favors Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus Replication in Infected Cells. Viruses 2016, 8, 173. ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/8/6/173
*  Influenza A virus nucleoprotein exploits Hsp40 to inhibit PKR activation. | Sigma-Aldrich
NP-Hsp40 interaction was validated in mammalian cells infected with various seasonal and pandemic strains of influenza viruses ... Influenza A virus nucleoprotein exploits Hsp40 to inhibit PKR activation.. [Kulbhushan Sharma, Shashank Tripathi, Priya Ranjan ... However the influenza virus component responsible for PKR inhibition through P58(IPK) activation was hitherto unknown. Human ... In case of influenza A virus (IAV) infection, P58(IPK) is known to dissociate from Hsp40 and inhibit PKR activation. ...
  https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/21698289
*  Viruses | Free Full-Text | The Dual Role of Exosomes in Hepatitis A and C Virus Transmission and Viral Immune Activation
Hepatitis A virus (HAV; a picornavirus) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV; a flavivirus) two single strand plus-sense RNA viruses, in ... This article will review recent findings regarding these two viruses and outline how exosomes are involved in their ... leading to innate immune activation and type I interferon production. ... Longatti, A. The Dual Role of Exosomes in Hepatitis A and C Virus Transmission and Viral Immune Activation. Viruses 2015, 7, ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/7/12/6707
*  Viruses | Free Full-Text | Activation of LTRs from Different Human Endogenous Retrovirus (HERV) Families by the HTLV-1 Tax...
... in Jurkat cells showed that several transcription factors including CREB appeared to be important for HERV-W8 LTR activation. ... Neutralizing Antibody Response to Hepatitis C Virus. Previous Article in Special Issue. Inhibition of Geranylgeranyl ... Viruses 2011, 3, 2146-2159. AMA Style. Toufaily C, Landry S, Leib-Mosch C, Rassart E, Barbeau B. Activation of LTRs from ... Viruses 2011, 3(11), 2146-2159; doi:10.3390/v3112146. Activation of LTRs from Different Human Endogenous Retrovirus (HERV) ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/3/11/2146
*  Stochastic Model of Acidification, Activation of Hemagglutinin and Escape of Influenza Viruses from an Endosome
During the endosomal journey, acidification triggers a conformational change of the virus spike protein hemagglutinin (HA) that ... Stochastic Model of Acidification, Activation of Hemagglutinin and Escape of Influenza Viruses from an Endosome. Lagachelt, ... Influenza viruses enter the cell inside an endosome. ... which is used to estimate the HA activation rate for a given pH ... more than 3 adjacent HAs is necessary to trigger endosomal fusion and this configuration prevents premature release of viruses ...
  https://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/230756
*  Wolbachia induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of the Toll pathway to control dengue virus in the...
1986) Direct inactivation of viruses by human granulocyte defensins. J Virol 60:1068-1074. ... Wolbachia induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of the Toll pathway to control dengue virus in the ... Wolbachia induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of the Toll pathway to control dengue virus in the ... Wolbachia induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of the Toll pathway to control dengue virus in the ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/109/1/E23
*  Tick-borne encephalitis virus induces chemokine RANTES expression via activation of IRF-3 pathway | Journal of...
... while blockade of IRF-3 activation drastically reduced virus-induced RANTES expression. Our findings together provide insights ... The virus-infected mice were treated with the CC chemokine antagonist Met-RANTES or anti-RANTES mAb to determine the role of ... Through in vitro studies, we show that virus infection up-regulated RANTES production at both mRNA and protein levels in human ... Site mutation of an IRF-3-binding motif abrogated the RANTES promoter activity in virus-infected brain cells. Moreover, IRF-3 ...
  https://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12974-016-0665-9
*  Extralymphatic virus sanctuaries as a consequence of potent T-cell activation - Zurich Open Repository and Archive
... hepatitis C virus and HIV. These viruses often resist complete elimination and remain detectable at sanctuary sites, such as ... Transfer of virus-specific B cells but not virus-specific T cells augmented virus clearance from persistent sites. Virus ... Transfer of virus-specific B cells but not virus-specific T cells augmented virus clearance from persistent sites. Virus ... site-specific virus persistence develops as a consequence of potent immune activation coupled with reductions in virus-specific ...
  http://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/81717/
*  Frontiers | Respiratory Influenza A Virus Infection Triggers Local and Systemic Natural Killer Cell Activation via Toll-Like...
We have analyzed lung cytokine responses as well as the activation, interferon (IFN)-γ production and cytotoxicity of lung and ... We have analyzed lung cytokine responses as well as the activation, interferon (IFN)-γ production and cytotoxicity of lung and ... Despite the known decisive role of TLR7 for NK cell activation by therapeutic immuno-stimulatory RNAs, the contribution of TLR7 ... Despite the known decisive role of TLR7 for NK cell activation by therapeutic immuno-stimulatory RNAs, the contribution of TLR7 ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00245/full
*  Activation of Ribosomal RNA Transcription by Hepatitis C Virus Involves Upstream Binding Factor Phosphorylation via Induction...
Flaviviridae: viruses and their replication. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology. Philadelphia (PA): Lippincott- ... Activation of RNA polymerase I transcription by hepatitis C virus core protein. J Biomed Sci 2004; 11: 72-94. ... Activation of Ribosomal RNA Transcription by Hepatitis C Virus Involves Upstream Binding Factor Phosphorylation via Induction ... Activation of Ribosomal RNA Transcription by Hepatitis C Virus Involves Upstream Binding Factor Phosphorylation via Induction ...
  http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/69/5/2057
*  Dengue-2 and yellow fever 17DD viruses infect human dendritic cells, resulting in an induction of activation markers, cytokines...
... when the virus was compared with the chimeric virus 44/3 (Fig. 1), all three viruses were titrated by the plaque-forming assay ... Dengue-2 and yellow fever 17DD viruses infect human dendritic cells, resulting in an induction of activation markers, cytokines ... with the YF17D/DENV2 vaccine virus. Cell infection rates were lower for the chimeric virus compared with the other two viruses ... Virus load decreases as the IFN-α levels increase. MoDCs from seven donors were assayed side-by-side at 48 h with both viruses ...
  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762011000500012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Viruses | Free Full-Text | Wolbachia Do Not Induce Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Immune Pathway Activation in Aedes...
The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this ... These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking ... viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited ... Facilitation of Rice Stripe Virus Accumulation in the Insect Vector by Himetobi P Virus VP1 ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/7/8/4624
*  Chris Pile (programmer) - Wikipedia
... as well as some of the virus activation messages, are from the British TV show Red Dwarf. Towards the late 1990s Pile spent ... for 18 months after being convicted of writing two PC computer viruses known as SMEG.Pathogen and SMEG.Queeg and the virus ... would make the resulting virus polymorphic and much harder to detect using anti-virus software. SMEG was also the first ... He created the computer viruses 'Pathogen' and 'Queeg'. He was also a prolific programmer of the Sinclair ZX Spectrum and MGT ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chris_Pile_(programmer)
*  Innate immune system - Wikipedia
Some viruses evade this by producing molecules which interfere with IFN production. For example, the Influenza A virus produces ... In parallel, when toll-like receptors in the endocytic compartments recognize a virus the activation of the adaptor protein ... Influenza A also blocks protein kinase R activation and establishment of the antiviral state. The dengue virus also inhibits ... Upon activation, eosinophils secrete a range of highly toxic proteins and free radicals that are highly effective in killing ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innate_immune_system
*  Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2 - Wikipedia
This response triggers the function of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). The activation of JNK leads to p53 and Akt activation ... Of the top ten swine production states in the United States as of 2010, viruses in 3 of the 9 major lineages were present. Two ... p53 and Akt in modulation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-mediated JNK activation". Virology. 444 (1-2 ... Type 2 PRRSV is an enveloped virus with a non-isometric nucleocapsid core. The Type 2 PRRSV genome has 10 open reading frames ( ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porcine_reproductive_and_respiratory_syndrome_virus_2
*  Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 - Wikipedia
"NF-κB and IRF7 pathway activation by Epstein-Barr virus Latent Membrane Protein 1". Viruses (6 ed.). 5 (6): 1587-606. doi: ... Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) protein that regulates its own expression ... Pratt, Z; Zhang, J; Sugden, B. (2012). "The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) oncogene of Epstein-Barr virus can simultaneously ... Li, H; Chang, Y (2003). "Epstein-barr virus latent membrane protein 1: Structure and functions". J Biomed. Sci. 10 (5): 490-504 ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epstein%E2%80%93Barr_virus_latent_membrane_protein_1
*  ADAR - Wikipedia
ADAR1's A to I editing has been found in many viruses including measles virus, influenza virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis ... "RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1 suppresses measles virus-induced apoptosis and activation of protein kinase PKR". The ... virus, polyomavirus, hepatitis delta virus, and hepatitis C virus. Although ADAR1 has been seen in other viruses, it has only ... ADAR1 is an interferon ( IFN )-inducible protein (one released by a cell in response to a pathogen or virus), so it would make ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ADAR
*  FLI1 - Wikipedia
The constitutive activation of fli-1 in erythroblasts leads to a dramatic shift in the Epo/Epo-R signal transduction pathway, ... Ben-David Y, Giddens EB, Letwin K, Bernstein A (June 1991). "Erythroleukemia induction by Friend murine leukemia virus: ... and Cas-Br-E viruses. Fli-1 aberrant expression is also associated with chromosomal abnormalities in humans. In pediatric ... insertional activation of a new member of the ets gene family, Fli-1, closely linked to c-ets-1". Genes Dev. 5 (6): 908-18. doi ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FLI1
*  WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease in Adults and Adolescents - Wikipedia
"Trans-activation of the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat sequence by DNA viruses". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. ... Bentwich Z, Kalinkovich A, Weisman Z (1995). "Immune activation is a dominant factor in the pathogenesis of African AIDS". ... Virus Res. 57 (1): 11-20. doi:10.1016/S0168-1702(98)00082-3. PMID 9833881. Campbell GR, Pasquier E, Watkins J, Bourgarel-Rey V ... Herpes simplex virus infection, mucocutaneous (>1 month) or visceral Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy Any ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WHO_Disease_Staging_System_for_HIV_Infection_and_Disease_in_Adults_and_Adolescents
*  Viruses | Free Full-Text | Antiviral Activity of Porcine Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 against Swine Viruses in Cell Culture
... whereas knockdown of poIRF1 cannot significantly affect the activation of IFN-β promoter induced by RNA viruses. This study ... In this study, we determined that poIRF1 was upregulated upon infection with viruses and distributed in nucleus in porcine PK- ... Subsequently, we tested the antiviral activities of poIRF1 against several swine viruses in cells. Overexpression of poIRF1 can ... Given these results, poIRF1 plays potential roles in cellular antiviral responses against swine viruses. ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/7/11/5908
*  Spyware - Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
... home and business anti-virus products do include anti-spyware functions, albeit treated differently from viruses. Symantec Anti ... The school loaded each student's computer with LANrev's remote activation tracking software. This included the now-discontinued ... Unlike viruses and worms, spyware does not usually self-replicate. Like many recent viruses, however, spyware-by design- ... McAfee and Sophos have also added anti-spyware features to their existing anti-virus products. Early on, anti-virus firms ...
  https://infogalactic.com/info/Anti-spyware