*  Project overview
2017. De Felipe AP, Lamas J, Sueiro RA, Folgueira I, Leiro JM. New data on flatfish scuticociliatosis reveal that Miamiensis avidus and Philasterides dicentrarchi are different species. Parasitology 144; 1394-1411. doi: doi.org/10.1017/S0031182017000749. Granja AG, Holland JW, Pignatelli J, Secombes CJ, Tafalla C (2017).Characterization of BAFF and APRIL subfamily receptors in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Potential role of the BAFF / APRIL axis in the pathogenesis of proliferative kidney disease. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0174249. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0174249. Jørgensen, L.vG., Kania, P.W., Rasmussen, K.J., Mattsson, A. H., Schmidt, J., Al-Jubury, A., Sander, A., Salanti, A., Buchmann, K. (2017). Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) immune response towards a recombinant vaccine targeting the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Journal of Fish Diseases. doi: doi:10.1111/jfd.12653. Jørgensen, L. v. G. (2017). The fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis - Host immunology, ...
  http://www.parafishcontrol.eu/parafishcontrol-about/project-overview/251-parafishcontrol/parafishcontrol-results?layout=blog
*  Studies on Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and the immune system of Ictalurus punctatus with emphasis on early detection of...
Studies on Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and the immune system of Ictalurus punctatus with emphasis on early detection of disease, chemotherapeutic agents and production of biological ...
  http://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/handle/2097/27487
*  Ichthyophthirius multifiliis as a potential vector of Edwardsiella ictaluri in channel catfish - Xu - 2012 - FEMS Microbiology...
Previous studies by our group and others have demonstrated that parasitism enhances mortality in fish coinfected with bacteria regardless of the order of infection (i.e. parasitism followed by bacterial exposure or vice versa). Our hypothesis in this study was that Ich, a ciliated protozoan parasite, could vector E. ictaluri, a bacterial pathogen, into channel catfish. Our results using fluorescent E. ictaluri demonstrated that the bacteria attached to the Ich reproductive and infective stages (tomonts and theronts). Confocal microscopy further demonstrated a close association of E. ictaluri with the surface of Ich and that the bacteria were not internalized. In a previous study, we demonstrated using lectins that surface carbohydrates are present on Ich theronts (Xu et al., 2001). Soybean agglutinin and lentil agglutinin were the most effective at binding Ich theronts, suggesting that the sugar molecules present were d-galactose, d-mannose, d-glucose, and N-acetylgalactosamine. The presence of ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2012.02518.x/full
*  DIGITAL.CSIC: Histophagous scuticociliatids (Ciliophora) parasitizing turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). Morphology, in vitro...
Systemic ciliatosis caused by histophagous ciliates constitutes a serious disease of cultured turbot. Six ciliate isolates were obtained from parasitized turbot during six epizootics at four different farms located in Spain, France and Portugal. Axenic cultures of the six isolates were obtained by periodical subculturing in ATCC 1651MA or supplemented L-15 media. In basal media or seawater, the parasites could survive starving for long periods with no apparent proliferation. In adequate media, growth kinetics was found to be very similar for isolates A and B, with a clear influence of temperature. Morphological studies demonstrated that all isolates share common features that allows their assignment to either Philasterides Kahl, 1931 or Miamiensis Thompson et Moewus, 1964. However, statistically significant differences were evident in pairwise comparisons of the isolates from the four farm sites in 16 taxonomically relevant morphometric features. This could allow the discrimination of different ...
  https://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/20883
*  DIGITAL.CSIC: Leucocyte numbers and phagocytic activity in turbot Scophthalmus maximus following immunization with Vibrio...
The effects of 2 injected bacterins, Vibrio damsela and Pasteurella piscicida O-antigen bacterins, on the cell type composition of the peripheral blood and head kidney and on the phagocytic activity of the head kidney leucocytes were studied in turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. Blood and head kidney samples were collected from treated and non-treated turbot at different times in the 168 h period after injection. The number of neutrophils increased markedly in the peripheral blood of P. piscicida O-antigen injected turbot 24 h after injection, being significantly higher (p , 0.01) than the neutrophil number in V. damsela O-antigen injected turbot. Forty-eight hours after injection, the numbers of head kidney neutrophils and macrophages in V. damsela and in P. piscicida O-antigen injected turbot increased significantly (p , 0.05) compared with those in saline-injected turbot while the neutrophils in the peripheral blood decreased in fish treated with each of the vaccines. Turbot neutrophils have ...
  https://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/25862
*  Fish Health Management Considerations in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems - Part 2: Pathogens | The Fish Site
Bacteria, parasites, fungi and viruses can all become concentrated in recirculating systems. Bacteria that seem to increase in number in recirculating systems include Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., Mycobacterium spp., Streptococcus spp., and Flavobacterium columnare (Columnaris disease) (see UF/IFAS Fact Sheets FA-14 Aeromonas Infections, FA-31 Vibrio Infections of Fish and VM-96 Mycobacteriosis in Fish; UF/IFAS Circular 57 Streptococcal Infections of Fish; and SRAC Publication No. 479b Columnaris Disease, respectively). Parasites that tend to thrive and spread relatively easily in recirculating systems include Trichodina, Ichthyophthirius,Cryptocaryon, Amyloodinium, Costia and monogeneans (see UF/IFAS Circulars 716 Introduction to Freshwater Fish Parasites and 920 Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (White Spot) Infections in Fish; UF/IFAS Fact sheet Amyloodinium Infections in Fish VM-90;and UF/IFAS Fact Sheet FA-28 Monogenean Parasites of Fish, respectively). Closed systems can also foster the spread ...
  https://thefishsite.com/articles/fish-health-management-considerations-in-recirculating-aquaculture-systems-part-2-pathogens
*  Anti-infective And Antiprotozoals - ICD Codes
View list of generic drugs that are classified under Anti-infective And Antiprotozoals along with ICD Code. Find related prescribing information and price details for each drug listed under it.
  http://www.medindia.net/drugs/icd-codes/anti-infective-and-antiprotozoals.htm
*  Leafy Sea Dragon|Underwater Photography Guide
Leafy Sea Dragon facts, habitat, underwater photography tips, photos, dive sites, leafy sea dragon behavior, life cycle, eggs & mating. Phycodurus eques is the Leafy Sea Dragon.
  http://www.uwphotographyguide.com/leafy-sea-dragon
*  Leafy Seadragon Phycodurus eques Stock Photo
Stock Photo of Leafy Seadragon Phycodurus eques. High Quality Leafy Seadragon Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
  http://www.oceanwideimages.com/Large-Image.asp?pID=19649&cID=157&rp=categories.asp%3FcID%3D157%26p%3D1
*  Seasonal pattern in parasite infracommunities of Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and Hoplias malabaricus (Actinopterygii:...
The present study investigated the effects of seasonal variation in parasites infracommunities of Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and Hoplias malabaricus from a tributary of Amazon River. For H. unitaeniatus and H. malabaricus, 11 parasite species were similar, and greatest parasite richness occurred during the rainy season. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant parasite species for both hosts. In H. unitaeniatus, infection by Whittingtonocotyle caetei, Whittingtonocotyle jeju, Urocleidoides sp. and Anacanthorus sp. was higher during rainy season. Contracaecum sp., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Nomimoscolex matogrossensis and Gorytocephalus spectabilis showed no seasonal pattern. For H. unitaeniatus, P. pillulare, Clinostomum marginatum and Argulus pestifer occurred only during dry season, while Trichodina sp., Dolops geayi, undetermined metacercariae and Posthodiplostomum sp. occurred only during the rainy season. In H. malabaricus, the prevalence of Urocleidoides eremitus was ...
  https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ap.2016.61.issue-1/ap-2016-0016/ap-2016-0016.xml
*  KAKEN - Research Projects | Pathologic Study on Histogenesis of Odontogenic Tumors (KAKENHI-PROJECT-06671823)
Principal Investigator:TAKEDA Yasunori, Project Period (FY):1994 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Morphological basic dentistry
  https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-06671823/
*  中国科学院水生生物研究所机构知识库(IHB OpenIR): Reevaluation of the phylogenetic relationship between Mobilid and Sessilid peritrichs ...
Based on morphological characters, peritrich ciliates (Class Olygohymenophorea, Subclass Peritrichia) have been subdivided into the Orders Sessilida and Mobilida. Molecular phylogenetic studies on peritrichs have been restricted to members of the Order Sessilida. In order to shed more light into the evolutionary relationships within peritrichs, the complete small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) sequences of four mobilid species, Trichodina nobilis, Trichodina heterodentata, Trichodina reticulata, and Trichodinella myakkae were used to construct phylogenetic trees using maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and Bayesian analyses. Whatever phylogenetic method used, the peritrichs did not constitute a monophyletic group: mobilid and sessilid species did not cluster together. Similarity in morphology but difference in molecular data led us to suggest that the oral structures of peritrichs are the result of evolutionary convergence. In addition, Trichodina reticulata, a Trichodina species with granules in the ...
  http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/152342/8846
*  Balantidiasis (Balantidium Infection)
Balantidiasis is an infectious disease caused by the ciliated protozoan parasite called Balantidium coli. The life cycle of the Balantidium coli begins with cysts in the host. The host consumes contaminated water or food, developing cysts which are considered as the parasite stage that transmits Balantidiasis. Excystation then takes place within the small intestine of the host. During this stage, trophozoites inhabit the large intestine. Within the lumen of the large intestine, the trophozoites replicate through binary fission and it is possible for conjugation to take place during this stage. Encystation of the trophozoites follows resulting in infectious cysts. A number of trophozoites will occupy the colon and multiply there while others go back to the lumen of the large intestine for disintegration. Finally, mature cysts are expelled from the body of the host with feces. Balantidium coli bacterium can be found all over the world. Pigs serve as its ideal animal reservoir, thus, Balantidiasis ...
  http://www.medic8.com/infectious-diseases/balantidiasis.htm
*  Publication : USDA ARS
Citation: Ott, B.D., Torrans, E.L. 2010. The "See-Saw": A Vertical-Lift Incubator Designed for Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Egg Masses (abstract). In: Proceedings, Aquaculture America Conference, March 1-5, 2010. p. 445 Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended within metal troughs with water that is agitated and pushed around the eggs with paddles. A limiting factor in the successful incubation of channel catfish eggs is the absorption of oxygen to the developing embryos; sub-optimal levels of dissolved oxygen in the water results in premature hatching and increased deformities and mortality of developing catfish eggs. We designed and tested the ability of a new vertical-lift incubator (the "See-Saw") to incubate channel catfish egg masses. Angle-aluminum racks were placed inside paired adjacent hatchery troughs with three hinged-lid baskets positioned in each rack. The racks were ...
  https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=245173
*  MetroPlex (formerly Metronidazole) [5 g]
MetroPlex™ is an effective and safe treatment for several protozoan and anaerobic bacterial diseases of fish (Cryptocaryon, Hexamita, Ichthyophthirius). It does not adversely affect the filter bed a...
  http://www.aquariumsupplies.ca/aquarium/product_info.php?products_id=1503
*  Microbe-Lift® Ich-Out
Rapid Relief of Ich and Parasitic Diseases MICROBE-LIFT/Ich-Out is the safest and most effective treatment for ich and many other protozoan-caused diseases in pond fish e g the diseases caused by Ichthyophthirius Cryptocaryon Costia Chilodonella Oodinium and Amyloodinium
  http://best-planet.com/microbe-lift-ich-out.html
*  Trematodes and Brooklynella or Uronema - Aquarium Advice - Aquarium Forum Community
I have some fish that have died in quarintine. Under microscopic study I have found both trematodes and Brooklynella or Uronema. I've argued with my spouse that it is Brooklynella and he thinks it is
  http://www.aquariumadvice.com/forums/f16/trematodes-and-brooklynella-or-uronema-54884.html
*  Call for your help, with eyes on White spot disease in crustacea: AUSTRALIA-wide. - The Fish Vet's Blog
Have you seen any seafood with tell-tale unusual white spots? The government is seeking our help to check on Australia's status on white spot disease. If it's here, we'd need to test and eradicate. If it's not, then we continue to be one of the few countries free from this devastating disease. If you see…
  https://thefishvet.com/2017/02/03/call-for-your-help-with-eyes-on-white-spot-disease-in-crustacea-australia-wide/
*  Preventing Ich or White Spot Disease in Fish - InfoBarrel
Ich (sometimes spelled Ick) and also known as white spot disease is a common problem in the aquarium world. It is actually a single celled parasite that floats through the water looking for a host. When it comes in contact with the skin or gills...
  http://www.infobarrel.com/Preventing_Ich_or_White_Spot_Disease_in_Fish
*  Armophorea - Wikipedia
Armophorea es una clase de protistas del filo Ciliophora.[2]​ [3]​ Incluye formas de vida libre y endosimbióticas y presumiblemente todos los miembros poseen hidrogenosomas. La clase está respaldada por análisis moleculares, pues incluye géneros, como Metopus y Nyctotherus, cuyas cinétidas no son muy similares.[4]​ Classification of the Phylum Ciliophora, down to genus, revised by Denis Lynn (unpubl.), http://www.uoguelph.ca/~ciliates/classification/genera.html, Consultado el 27 de agosto de 2015. Lynn, D. H. (2003). Morphology or molecules: how do we identify the major lineages of ciliates (Phylum Ciliophora). European Journal of Protistology, 39(4), 356-364. Lynn, Denis (2008). The Ciliated Protozoa: Characterization, Classification, and Guide to the Literature (3 ed.). Springer. p. 10. Paiva, T. D. S., Borges, B. D. N., & Silva-Neto, I. D. D. (2013). Phylogenetic study of Class Armophorea (Alveolata, Ciliophora) based on 18S-rDNA data. Genetics and molecular biology, 36(4), 571-585 ...
  https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armophorea
*  Inter Research » MEPS » v557 » p77-90
ABSTRACT: Protozoa, a ubiquitous component of microbial biofilms, are able to rapidly colonise new substrata and reach high abundances, yet their potential to influence invertebrate settlement on these biofilms remains largely unknown. We conducted still-water, no-choice settlement assays to determine the individual effects of 4 different species of marine biofilm-dwelling ciliates on settlement of the polychaete worm Galeolaria caespitosa. The ciliates included vagile and planktonic species common to natural assemblages. Each ciliate species significantly inhibited the settlement of G. caespitosa, with the exception of Litonotus sp. The extent of inhibition differed significantly among ciliate species. Settlement was significantly reduced in the presence of Amphisiella sp. (37.5%), Euplotes minuta (43.7%) and Uronema marinum (39.6%) over 72 h compared to the control. Settlement rates in the presence of filtrate from ciliate cultures were at no point significantly different ...
  http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v557/p77-90/
*  Prostomatea - Wikipedia
Prostomatea es una clase de protistas del filo Ciliophora.[2]​[3]​ Incluye tanto especies de vida libre como parásitas, que se caracterizan por tener un citostoma en posición anterior, de ahí el nombre de la clase. La citofaringe está soportada por cintas microtubulares postciliares que tienen su origen en las dicinétidas orales. Classification of the Phylum Ciliophora, down to genus, revised by Denis Lynn (unpubl.), http://www.uoguelph.ca/~ciliates/classification/genera.html, Consultado el 27 de agosto de 2015. Lynn, D. H. (2003). Morphology or molecules: how do we identify the major lineages of ciliates (Phylum Ciliophora). European Journal of Protistology, 39(4), 356-364. Lynn, Denis (2008). The Ciliated Protozoa: Characterization, Classification, and Guide to the Literature (3 ed.). Springer. p. 10 ...
  https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostomatea
*  The Growth, Innate Immunity and Protection against H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-Induced Oxidative Damage of a Chitosan-Coated...
The Growth, Innate Immunity and Protection against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Damage of a Chitosan-Coated Diet in the Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus;kpubs;kpubs.org
  http://www.kpubs.org/article/articleMain.kpubs?articleANo=E1HKAL_2013_v16n3_149
*  WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Uronema Dujardin, 1841
additional source Guiry, M.D. (2001). Macroalgae of Rhodophycota, Phaeophycota, Chlorophycota, and two genera of Xanthophycota, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 20-38 (look up in IMIS) [details] ...
  http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=143943
*  "Phylogenetic Analyses Suggest That Psammomitra (Ciliophora, Urostylida" by Zhenzhen Yi, Weibo Song et al.
The morphologically unique ciliate Psammomitra has long been considered as a systematically uncertain stichotrich. This is mainly because of its highly specialized morphology and a lack of either detailed information concerning its ontogenesis, or molecular data. Based on the small subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene and alpha-tubulin gene sequences, we re-evaluated the phylogenetic position of Psammomitra retractilis using multiple algorithms. Phylogenetic trees inferred from the SSrRNA gene sequences representing a total of 53 spirotrichs demonstrated the closest relationship of Psammomitra was with Holosticha-like taxa, with strong support, which clearly suggested that Psammomitra should be placed into the order Urostylida although it branched at a rather deep level, and is likely to be closely related to Holostichidae. With consideration to molecular evidence and morphological characters, Psammomitra should be a clearly outlined taxon at about the rank of family, i.e. Psammomitridae stat. nov., within the
  http://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/1289/