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*  Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome | Winchester Hospital
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is characterized by uric acid build-up, neurologic disability, and behavioral problems, including self- ... HPRT is needed to metabolize uric acid. Without this enzyme, uric acid builds up in the central nervous system, kidneys, and ... This change results in the absence of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). ... Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is characterized by uric acid build-up, neurologic disability, and behavioral problems, including self- ...
  http://www.winchesterhospital.org/health-library/article?id=22829
*  Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome
Patients with this syndrome are prone to have uric acid kidney stones and mental retardation. It is inherited as an X-linked ... due to a defective gene called the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. ... Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is caused by hyperuricemia (high serum levels of uric acid) ...
  http://healthboard.com/Encyclopedia/Biotech/term/lesch-nyhan_syndrome.html
*  DIGITAL.CSIC: Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein synthesis in the camel (Camelus...
... hypoxanthine were consistently 86 and 6.1 % of total urinary PD during this period but uric acid increased from 3.6 % to 7.4 ... hypoxanthine, uric acid, allantoin). In experiment 1, four camels were fasted for five consecutive days to enable endogenous PD ...
  https://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/12129
*  Enyzme | Article about Enyzme by The Free Dictionary
hypoxanthine to uric acid. Chemical nature. All enzymes are proteins. Their molecular weights range from about 10,000 to more ...
  http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Enyzme
*  Nontargeted Metabolite Profiling of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) Derived Neural Cells: Insights Into Mechanisms of...
Down: hypoxanthine, uric acid, hypoxanthine/xanthosine, xanthosine/xanthine, hypoxanthine/uric acid. [68]. ... The aberrations in the purine pathway that might appear upstream from uric acid have been studied in LRRK2 PD and sporadic PD [ ... the levels of uric acid were negatively associated with PD progression. ...
  https://www.intechopen.com/books/pluripotent-stem-cells-from-the-bench-to-the-clinic/nontargeted-metabolite-profiling-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-ipscs-derived-neural-cells-insigh/
*  Gout Flashcards by Kelsey Conrad | Brainscape
uricosuric: inhibits reabsorption of uric acid. inhibits excretion of other acidic drugs ... xanthine oxidase inhibitor reduces urate formation but risk of hypoxanthine stones 9 ...
  https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/gout-5510534/packs/8106946
*  Frontiers | Allopurinol reduces antigen-specific and polyclonal activation of human T cells | Immunology
... uric acid, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) and oxypurinol after rigorous exercise. Metabolism 55, 103-107. ... This molecule and its in vivo active metabolite oxypurinol act as hypoxanthine analogs that irreversibly inhibit xanthine ... oxidase leading to an inhibition of the catalytic reaction that generates uric acid from hypoxanthine and xanthine, with the ... High-dose allopurinol improves endothelial function by profoundly reducing vascular oxidative stress and not by lowering uric ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2012.00295/full
*  Allopurinol Normalizes Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetics With Mild Hypertension | Hypertension
... and it catalyzes the degradation of hypoxanthine to uric acid. A potent way to prevent XO-generated free radicals in the ... Second, ischemia results in the dephosphorylation of ATP to AMP and then to hypoxanthine.21 Therefore, there is a potential to ... Berman RS, Martin W. Arterial endothelial barrier dysfunction: actions of the homocysteine and hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase ... XO is the major source of free radicals23 and that hypoxanthine and XO increase endothelial dysfunction, which can then be ...
  http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/35/3/746
*  Comparison of human erythrocyte purine nucleotide metabolism and blood purine and pyrimidine degradation product concentrations...
The concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid and uridine were determined in the whole blood before exercise, after ... Hellsten-Westing Y, Sollevi A, Sjödin B (1991) Plasma accumulation of hypoxanthine, uric acid and creatine kinase following ... hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid) and pyrimidine (uridine) degradation products in blood. The study included 15 male elite ... Giacomello A, Salerno C (1979) Hypoxanthine uptake by human erythrocytes. FEBS Lett 107(1):203-204CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12576-017-0536-x
*  Xanthine | definition of xanthine by Medical dictionary
Oxidation product of guanine and hypoxanthine, precursor of uric acid; occurs in many organs and in the urine, occasionally ... Oxidation product of guanine and hypoxanthine, precursor of uric acid; occurs in many organs and in the urine, occasionally ... Catalyzes the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid. Generates hydrogen peroxide, which can be a ... 1. A yellowish-white, crystalline purine base, C5H4N4O2, that is a precursor of uric acid and is found in blood, urine, muscle ...
  https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/xanthine
*  9/5/17 Flashcards by Andrew Vidalis | Brainscape
Adenosine to inosine to hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid, guanine to xanthine to uric acid ... Cytoplasmic Source: hypoxanthine becomes xanthine and uric acid via xanthine oxidase, generates hydrogen peroxide and ... Adenine, hypoxanthine, guanine have ribose 5-phosphate added by phosphoribosyltransferase, makes AMP, IMP, and GMP. Degradation ... Water soluble: glutathione, vitamin C, uric acid. Fat soluble: vitamin E, CoQ, beta carotene (retinoids). Proteins: superoxide ...
  https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/9-5-17-6188594/packs/9451866
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
Purine metabolites were linked to hypoxia as early as 1963 and the reliability of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid as ... Medicine, Issue 54, hypoxia, Ischemia, Neonate, Hypoxanthine, Xanthine, Uric Acid, Allantoin, Xanthine Oxidase, Malondialdehyde ... In humans, however, allantoin can only be formed by ROS-mediated oxidation of uric acid. Because of this, allantoin is ... This leads to increased levels of adenosine which is subsequently degraded to inosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and finally to ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/23285295/schwartz-formula-is-one-k-coefficient-adequate-for-all-children
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
Purine metabolites were linked to hypoxia as early as 1963 and the reliability of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid as ... Medicine, Issue 54, hypoxia, Ischemia, Neonate, Hypoxanthine, Xanthine, Uric Acid, Allantoin, Xanthine Oxidase, Malondialdehyde ... Effect of plasma uric acid on pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine A in living-related renal transplant recipients and ... In humans, however, allantoin can only be formed by ROS-mediated oxidation of uric acid. Because of this, allantoin is ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/20831533/effect-plasma-uric-acid-on-pharmacokinetics-cyclosporine-living
*  The further adventures of uric acid and gout foot - Amal Graafstra - Technologist, Author & Double RFID Implantee
Xanthine oxidase oxidizes oxypurines such as xanthine and hypoxanthine to uric acid. In humans and higher primates, uric acid ... If uric acid levels are low, then this spiral can never get started. For most of us, high uric acid levels is a genetic problem ... In most other mammals, the enzyme uricase further oxidizes uric acid to allantoin. Uric acid is also the end product of ... If your uric acid level is higher than 6mg/dL (333µmols/L), urate crystals will form regardless of the amount of water you ...
  http://amal.net/?p=2401
*  Oxidants, antioxidants and the ischemic brain | Journal of Experimental Biology
Nihei, H., Kanemitsu, H., Tamura, A., Oka, H. and Sano, K. (1989). Cerebral uric acid, xanthine, and hypoxanthine after ... which in turn catalyzes oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Xanthine oxidase further oxidizes xanthine to produce uric acid ... Marro, P. J., McGowan, J. E., Razdan, B., Mishra, O. P. and Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M. (1994). Effect of allopurinol on uric ... Metabolism of ATP leads to accumulation of hypoxanthine (Morimoto et al., 1982). In non-ischemic tissue, xanthine oxidase ...
  http://jeb.biologists.org/content/207/18/3221.full
*  Riboflavin in Cell Culture | China-Mainland | Sigma-Aldrich
Xanthine oxidase (EC 1.1.3.22), a FAD enzyme, converts hypoxanthine and xanthine into uric acid. Uric acid is an important ...
  https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/china-mainland/zh/life-science/cell-culture/learning-center/media-expert/riboflavin.html
*  Comparative effectiveness of allopurinol versus febuxostat for preventing incident dementia in older adults: a propensity...
... the conversion of hypoxanthine into xanthine and xanthine into uric acid. The conversion of hypoxanthine into uric acid by XOR ... Reaction of uric acid with peroxynitrite and implications for the mechanism of neuroprotection by uric acid. Arch Biochem ... Uric acid and dementia in community-dwelling older persons. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2009;27(4):382-9.View ArticlePubMed ... Additionally, uric acid has both a pro-oxidant action [4, 5] and an anti-oxidant action [6, 7] and is potentially ...
  https://arthritis-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13075-018-1663-3
*  Gout Flashcards by ashley f | Brainscape
hypoxanthine is not cycled back through inosinic acid. -instead there is an increase in hypoxanthine and uric acid ... increase uric acid elimination. Uricosuric agents and/or increasing rate of urine flow. -decrease uric acid production. Drugs, ... 800-1000mg uric acid day/ urine or ~7-10 mg uric acid/ 100mL serum. -diet, exercise ... 600-800 mg uric acid day/urine unrestricted diet. ~7 mg uric acid/100mL serum ...
  https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/gout-1082251/packs/1951268
*  Nephropathy | Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Organic compound enzyme can degrade hypoxanthine to organic compound and uric acid. Organic compound isn't terribly soluble in ... Organic compound enzyme can degrade hypoxanthine to organic compound and so to acid. Organic compound isn't terribly soluble in ...
  https://www.omicsonline.org/nephropathy-scholarly-open-access-journals.php
*  Tumor Lysis Syndrome: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Renal tubule precipitation of uric acid, calcium phosphate, or hypoxanthine causes acute kidney injury. This is often oliguric ... Its development is due to mechanical obstruction by uric acid crystals in the renal tubules. Uric acid has a pKa of 5.6; uric ... Uric acid is a weak acid with a pKa of approximately 5.4. It is soluble in plasma and is freely filtered at the renal glomeruli ... However, uric acid is less soluble in renal tubular and collecting duct fluid due to normally acidic media, thus increasing the ...
  https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/282171-overview
*  Febuxostat - Wikipedia
Xanthine oxidase is needed to successively oxidize both hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid. Hence, febuxostat inhibits ... It inhibits xanthine oxidase, thus reducing production of uric acid in the body. Febuxostat was discovered by scientists at the ... xanthine oxidase, therefore reducing production of uric acid. Febuxostat inhibits both oxidized as well as reduced form of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Febuxostat
*  Kidney disease - Wikipedia
Xanthine oxidase will degrade hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid. Xanthine is not very soluble in water; therefore ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kidney_disease
*  Nucleotide - Wikipedia
Hypoxanthine is oxidized to xanthine and finally to uric acid. Instead of uric acid secretion, guanine and IMP can be used for ... Similarly, uric acid can be formed when AMP is deaminated to IMP from which the ribose unit is removed to form hypoxanthine. ... Instead they are degraded to the metabolically inert uric acid which is then excreted from the body. Uric acid is formed when ... Guanine is deaminated to xanthine which in turn is oxidized to uric acid. This last reaction is irreversible. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleotide
*  Uric acid - Wikipedia
The enzyme xanthine oxidase catalyzes formation of uric acid from xanthine and hypoxanthine, which in turn are produced from ... Uric acid levels in saliva may be associated with blood uric acid levels. Hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid), which ... These uric acid stones are radiolucent and so do not appear on an abdominal plain X-ray.[citation needed] Uric acid crystals ... Serum uric acid can be elevated by reduced excretion via the kidneys. Fasting or rapid weight loss can temporarily elevate uric ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uric_acid
*  Hyperuricemia - Wikipedia
... uric acid levels in normal human subjects fed purine-rich foods containing different amounts of adenine and hypoxanthine". J Am ... Precipitation of uric acid crystals, and conversely their dissolution, is known to be dependent on the concentration of uric ... Hyperuricemia is an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood. In the pH conditions of body fluid, uric acid exists ... Starvation also impairs the ability of the kidney to excrete uric acid, due to competition for transport between uric acid and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperuricemia