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*  Practical Comparison of Plasma Mass Spectrometry to Other Analytical Techniques for the Determination of Uranium Concentration...
Several analytical techniques have long been used for uranium concentration and isotopic ratio determinations within the many Department of Energy laboratories located throughout the United States. Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) has historically been the technique of choice for isotopic ratio measurements, primarily due to its capability for high precision. For uranium concentration work, the list of techniques is long and varied. Each of these methods has its own strengths and weaknesses, which can become critical in the analysis of difficult sample matrices such as sludges, oils, and mixed wastes.. From a practical standpoint, the use of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for uranium measurements is an attractive alternative to techniques such as TIMS and fluorimetry, due to its higher throughput, less demanding sample preparation requirements, and ability to measure both concentration and isotopic ratio on the same sample. ...
  https://www.astm.org/DIGITAL_LIBRARY/STP/PAGES/STP15981S.htm
*  Uranium |Toxzine | ATSDR
It is found in very small amounts in nature in the form of minerals, but may be processed into a silver-colored metal. Rocks, soil, surface and groundwater, air, and plants and animals all contain varying amounts of uranium. If the amount is great enough, the uranium may be present in commercial concentrations, called ore, and can be mined. Uranium is almost as hard as steel and much denser than lead. Natural uranium is used to make enriched uranium; depleted uranium is the leftover product. Enriched uranium is used to make fuel for nuclear power plants. Depleted uranium is used as a counterbalance on helicopter rotors and airplane control surfaces, as a shield to protect against ionizing radiation, as a component to munitions to help them penetrate enemy armored vehicles, and as armor in some parts of military vehicles.. Natural uranium is a mixture of ...
  https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/sites/toxzine/uranium_toxzine.html
*  Uranium Refining and Conversion Plant Decommissioning Project | ASME 2010 13th International Conference on Environmental...
The uranium refining and conversion plant (URCP) at Ningyo-toge was constructed in 1981 for the purpose of demonstrating on refining and conversion process from yellow cake (or uranium trioxide) to uranium hexafluoride by way of uranium tetrafluoride. For 20 years, 385 tons of natural uranium hexafluoride and 336 tons of reprocessed uranium hexafluoride (approximately) was produced. There are two different type of refining processes in the URCP. One is the wet process by convertig the natural uranium and the other is the dry conversion process for the reprocessed uranium. The dismantling of the dry process facilities began in March, 2008. It was found the large amount of uranium residuals such as wet slurry and powder uranium inside the vessels and pipes. Therefore, we have to take care of the spread of the contamination during dismantling ...
  http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1621821
*  Toxics | Free Full-Text | The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium | HTML
Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU) is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The world wide stock pile contains some 1½ million tons of depleted uranium. Some of it has been used to dilute weapons grade uranium (~90% 235U) down to reactor grade uranium (~5% 235U), and some of it has been used for heavy tank armor and for the fabrication of armor-piercing bullets and missiles. Such weapons were used by the military in the Persian Gulf, the Balkans and elsewhere. The testing of depleted uranium weapons and their use in combat has resulted in environmental contamination and human exposure. Although the chemical and the toxicological behaviors of depleted uranium are essentially the same as those of natural uranium, the respective chemical forms ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/2305-6304/2/1/50/htm
*  Effects of aqueous uranyl speciation on the kinetics of microbial uranium reduction (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES
The ability to predict the success of the microbial reduction of soluble U(VI) to highly insoluble U(IV) as an in situ bioremediation strategy is complicated by the wide range of geochemical conditions at contaminated sites and the strong influence of aqueous uranyl speciation on the bioavailability and toxicity of U(VI) to metal-reducing bacteria. In order to determine the effects of aqueous uranyl speciation on uranium bioreduction kinetics, incubations and viability assays with Shewanella putrefaciens strain 200 were conducted over a range of pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Ca 2+, and Mg 2+ concentrations. A speciation-dependent kinetic model was developed to reproduce the observed time series of total dissolved uranium concentration over the range of geochemical conditions tested. The kinetic model yielded the highest rate constant for the reduction of uranyl non-carbonate species (i.e., the 'free' hydrated uranyl ion, uranyl hydroxides, and other minor uranyl ...
  https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1332077-effects-aqueous-uranyl-speciation-kinetics-microbial-uranium-reduction
*  ASTM C1287 - 10 Standard Test Method for Determination of Impurities in Nuclear Grade Uranium Compounds by Inductively Coupled...
C1287 - 10 Standard Test Method for Determination of Impurities in Nuclear Grade Uranium Compounds by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry , impurities, inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry, uranium, uranium dioxide, uranium hexafluoride, uranyl nitrate solutions, uranium oxide, uranium trioxide, ICP-MS (inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry), Impurities--nuclear materials, Mass spectrometry--nuclear materials/applications, Uranium, Uranium oxide (U3O8),
  https://www.astm.org/Standards/C1287.htm
*  Geofemtz.: Uranium mining
The Czech Republic is the birthplace of industrial scale uranium mining. Uranium mining at Jáchymov (at that time named Joachimsthal and belonging to Austria-Hungary) started in the 1890s on an industrial scale, after the silver and cobalt production of the deposit declined. Uranium was first utilised to produce mainly yellow colours for glass and porcelain manufacture. After the Curies in France discovered the polonium and radium in tailings from Jáchymov, the town became the first place in the world for commercial radium production from uranium ore. Radioactive water from the mines was also used to set up a health resort still existing today for radon-treatments. Pre-Cold War production is estimated to be around 1,000 t of uranium. From 1947 on the Czech Republic started producing uranium for the Soviet Union. Early mining sites such as Jáchymov, Horní Slavkov and Příbram became known as parts of the ...
  http://geofemtz.blogspot.com/2012/02/uranium-mining.html
*  Potential uranium supply from phosphoric acid: A U.S. analysis comparing solvent extraction and Ion exchange recovery (Journal...
Phosphate rock contains significant amounts of uranium, although in low concentrations. Recovery of uranium as a by-product from phosphoric acid, an intermediate product produced during the recovery of phosphorus from phosphate rock, is not unprecedented. Phosphoric acid plants ceased to produce uranium as a by-product in the early 1990s with the fall of uranium prices. In the last decade, this topic has regained attention due to higher uranium prices and expected increase in demand for uranium. Our study revisits the topic and estimates how much uranium might be recoverable from current phosphoric acid production in the United States and what the associated costs might be considering two different recovery processes: solvent extraction and ion exchange. Based on U.S. phosphoric acid production in 2014, 5.5 million pounds of U3O8 could have been recovered, more than domestic U.S. mine ...
  https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1357599-potential-uranium-supply-from-phosphoric-acid-analysis-comparing-solvent-extraction-ion-exchange-recovery
*  ATSDR - Uranium Toxicity - REDIRECT
Everyone is exposed to uranium in food, air, and water as part of the natural environment. Most exposures do not warrant monitoring or treatment. Populations most heavily exposed to uranium are those employed in mining and milling operations, or in uranium enrichment and processing activities. Natural and depleted uranium are primarily chemical toxicants, with radiation playing a minor role or no role at all. Outcomes that may occur with uranium overexposure, based on both observed human effects and animal studies, include non-malignant respiratory disease (fibrosis, emphysema) and nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity should reverse as overexposure ceases. Alpha radiation (such as that from uranium) is classified as a human carcinogen. However, human studies have not found elevated rates of cancer from uranium exposure, and high-dose animal studies have not found cancer following inhalation, oral, ...
  https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/uranium/
*  Selective adsorption of uranium (VI) on NaHCO3 leached composite γ-Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane coated magnetic Ion...
1. Introduction. Major sources of radioactive wastes and contaminants, like uranium, emanate from the production of electrical power and weapons from nuclear fuels, nuclear weapons' tests, fuel reprocessing, and nuclear accidents.1 These processes generate a lot of uranium waste that has always been a problem for long-term storage.2,3 Other sources of uranium waste include by-products of mining activities of other minerals such as gold and copper.4,5 The production of uranium has generally been a by-product of gold or copper mining. Gold and uranium mining are typically accomplished together, as both methods process large volumes of material with very small yields.. In nature, uranium normally occurs in tetravalent and hexavalent form, but the latter is easily soluble in acidic conditions.6 In oxygen-containing groundwater, uranium is most commonly found in the hexavalent oxidation state, ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0379-43502015000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Uranium Bio-Transformations: Chemical or Biological Processes?
Uranium bio-transformations are the many and varying types of interactions that microbes can have with uranium encountered in their environment. In this review, bio-transformations, including reduction, oxidation, respiration, sorption, mineralization, accumulation, precipitation, biomarkers, and sensors are defined and discussed. Consensus and divergences are noted in bioavailability, mechanism of uranium reduction, environment, metabolism and the type of organism. The breadth of organisms with characterized bio-trans formations is also cataloged and discussed. We further debate if uranium biotransformations provide bio-protection or bio-benefit to the microbe and highlight the need for more work in the field to understand if microbes use uranium reduction for energy gain and growth, as having the ability is separate from exercising it. The presentation centers on the fundamental drivers for these processes with an ...
  http://file.scirp.org/Html/2-1310166_75871.htm
*  Uranium and other contaminants in hair from the parents of children with congenital anomalies in Fallujah, Iraq | Conflict and...
Since the use of Depleted Uranium in GW1, there has been a research focus on contamination by this material as a potential cause of increases in congenital anomaly (CA) and cancer rates [5]. When Depleted Uranium weapons are employed, sub-micron aerosolized particles of ceramic Uranium oxides are created [6, 7]. These are respirable and the inhalation of Uranium involves a 200-fold increased radiation dose conversion coefficient (the committed effective radiation dose per unit intake) compared with ingested Uranium. This is due to the long biological half life of internal Uranium and the very low gut transfer factor for ingested Uranium [6-8]. Of course, the troops were also exposed to DU aerosols. A number of studies of the GW 1 veterans have shown statistically significantly increased rates of congenital malformation in their children [9-11]. For example, Doyle et al. [9] reported rates of ...
  https://conflictandhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1752-1505-5-15
*  Depleted uranium ammunition | Article about Depleted uranium ammunition by The Free Dictionary
Looking for Depleted uranium ammunition? Find out information about Depleted uranium ammunition. Uranium having a smaller percentage of uranium-235 than the 0.7% found in natural uranium Explanation of Depleted uranium ammunition
  http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Depleted+uranium+ammunition
*  Isotopes of uranium - Wikipedia
Uranium-234 is an isotope of uranium. In natural uranium and in uranium ore, U-234 occurs as an indirect decay product of uranium-238, but it makes up only 0.0055% (55 parts per million) of the raw uranium because its half-life of just 245,500 years is only about 1/18,000 as long as that of U-238. The path of production of U-234 via nuclear decay is as follows: U-238 nuclei emit an alpha particle to become thorium-234 (Th-234). Next, with a short half-life, Th-234 nuclei emit a beta particle to become protactinium-234 (Pa-234). Finally, Pa-234 nuclei emit another beta particle to become U-234 nuclei.. U-234 nuclei usually last for hundreds of thousands of years, but then they decay by alpha emission to thorium-230, except for the small percentage of nuclei that undergo spontaneous fission.. Extraction of rather small amounts of U-234 from natural uranium would be feasible using isotope ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_uranium
*  Part III: Dissimilatory Bacteria in Uranium Reduction
Most people may not know that uranium contaminations are a problem. Part of it has to do with the fact that uranium is not rare being the 49th most abundant element in the earth crust. In recent years, with the advent of nuclear power, and nuclear weaponry, mining, refining, and nuclear testing has lead to different forms of environmental contamination in some areas. Just within the United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) has identified 120 sites covering 7280 km2 in 36 states and territories. This is about equivalent to the area of the entire urban area of New York City. Mining of uranium in Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona for example has led to local contaminations of the water as uranium salts leach into the ground water ...
  http://biobasedpod.blogspot.com/2009/03/part-iii-dissimilatory-bacteria-in.html
*  Modifications of cholesterol metabolism in brain following uranium contamination
Cholesterol is essential to human health due to its diverse roles, ranging from membrane structure and fluidity to synthesis of numerous molecules such as steroid hormones, vitamin D and bile acids. Cholesterol is also involved in myelin synthesis, thus in central nervous system functioning. Moreover, it is well established that some disruptions of cholesterol metabolism in the brain can lead to pathological outcomes, such as Alzheimer's disease or Niemann-Pick C disease. Recent work showed that brain could be targeted by uranium, a natural radionuclide. Uranium's occurrence in the environment results from both natural and human origins. Its enrichment in nuclear power plants produces two compounds: enriched uranium (EU) and depleted uranium (DU). The dispersion of uranium in the environment sets human populations at risk of being contaminated through ingestion, inhalation or skin penetration. After entering the body, ...
  http://www.irsn.fr/EN/Research/publications-documentation/Publications/DRPH/SRBE/Pages/Modifications-of-cholesterol-metabolism-in-brain-following-uranium-contamination-3897.aspx
*  Nanostructured Metal Oxide Sorbents for the Collection and Recovery of Uranium from Seawater (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect
The ability to collect uranium from seawater offers the potential for a long-term green fuel supply for nuclear energy. However, extraction of uranium, and other trace minerals, is challenging due to the high ionic strength and low mineral concentrations in seawater. Herein we evaluate the use of nanostructured metal oxide sorbents for the collection and recovery of uranium from seawater. Chemical affinity, chemical adsorption capacity and kinetics of preferred sorbent materials were evaluated. High surface area manganese and iron oxide nanomaterials showed excellent performance for uranium collection from seawater. Inexpensive nontoxic carbonate solutions were demonstrated to be an effective and environmental benign method of stripping the uranium from the metal oxide sorbents. Various formats for the utilization of the nanostructured metals oxide sorbent materials are discussed including traditional and nontraditional ...
  https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1255367-nanostructured-metal-oxide-sorbents-collection-recovery-uranium-from-seawater
*  Investigations Into the Reusability of Amidoxime-Based Polymeric Uranium Adsorbents (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect
Significant advancements in amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents to extract uranium from seawater are achieved in recent years. The success of uranium adsorbent development can help provide a sustainable supply of fuel for nuclear reactors. To bring down the production cost of this new technology, in addition to the development of novel adsorbents with high uranium capacity and manufacture cost, the development of adsorbent re-using technique is critical because it can further reduce the cost of the adsorbent manufacture. In our last report, the use of high concentrations of bicarbonate solution (3M KHCO3) was identified as a cost-effective, environmental friendly method to strip uranium from amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents. This study aims to further improve the method for high recovery of uranium capacity in re-uses and to evaluate the performance of adsorbents after multiple re-use cycles. Adsorption of dissolved ...
  https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1330925-investigations-reusability-amidoxime-based-polymeric-uranium-adsorbents
*  Milfuegos: Depleted Uranium, Diabetes, Cancer And You by Dr. Alan Cantwell
Writing for the Portland Independent Media Centre on 3 July 2005, he declares: "Health physicists are deeply concerned with the public health and welfare, and as experts in radiation and its effects on people and the environment, are quite aware that something other than exposure to uranium is the cause of the illnesses suffered by those who have had contact with depleted uranium from munitions. A truly enormous body of scientific data shows that it is virtually impossible for uranium to be the cause of their illnesses. Despite this body of scientific data to the contrary, misguided or unknowing people continue to allege that the depleted uranium, and specifically the radioactivity associated with the depleted uranium is the cause of these illness. This is indeed unfortunate, for health physicists and other scientists and physicians already know that depleted uranium is not the cause of these illnesses and ...
  http://milfuegos.blogspot.com/2007/01/depleted-uranium-diabetes-cancer-and.html
*  Blog: Hillary foundering on the uranium sale
Hillary was secure in the knowledge that neither the interviewer nor most of those watching the show had read Schweizer's book. In fact, there are two stages to the Uranium One scandal, as Schweizer spells out in detail. Stage one was when Bill Clinton helped to facilitate and legitimize the acquisition of vast uranium deposits in Kazakhstan by a previously-unknown company called UrAsia Energy, and the subsequent merger of UrAsia with Uranium One. The individuals who benefited from those transactions poured more than $100 million into the Clinton Foundation prior to 2009. These are the donations that Hillary refers to when she says that "the timing doesn't work" because she was not yet Secretary of State.. The second stage of the Uranium One scandal occurred later, when a Russian company controlled by the Russian State Nuclear Agency bought Uranium One, which by that time controlled around one-half of the ...
  http://www.americanthinker.com/blog/2015/06/hillary_foundering_on_the_uranium_sale.html
*  Boom: The Clintons, US Uranium, Putin, and the FBI
Link: https://www.activistpost.com/2017/10/boom-clintons-us-uranium-putin-fbi.html. April 23, 2015, NY Times: Cash Flowed to Clinton Foundation Amid Russian Uranium Deal.. Canadian company Uranium One controlled a great deal of uranium production in US. It was sold to Russia now controls 20% of US uranium production.. "Since uranium is considered a strategic asset, with implications for national security, the deal [to sell Uranium One to Putin] had to be approved by a committee composed of representatives from a number of United States government agencies. Among the agencies that eventually signed off was the State Department, then headed by Mr. Clinton's wife, Hillary Rodham Clinton." ...
  http://www.thepeoplesvoice.org/TPV3/Past-News.php/2017/10/25/boom-the-clintons-us-uranium
*  Depleted Uranium: The Invisible Threat - Mother Jones
NATO's continued bombardment of Yugoslavia had several stated goals, one of which was the safe return of hundreds of thousands of Kosovar refugees. With refugees already pouring back over the borders, attention and concern now turn to the conditions facing returning refugees: bombed roads and bridges, burned villages, and an almost non-existent civil infrastructure. But there's another potential problem: depleted uranium (DU). The Pentagon has confirmed that it used DU in Kosovo. It has also confirmed it has no plans to clean it up. Depleted uranium is twice as heavy as lead. As a result, ammunition made from DU can pierce just about any armor. But while it's an extremely effective an anti-tank weapon, DU does have a downside: It is radioactive and, in dust form, it can cause serious internal injuries. A waste product of nuclear weapon manufacturing and reactor use, depleted uranium is only about half as radioactive as natural uranium. When ...
  http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2001/01/depleted-uranium-invisible-threat/
*  Development Dialogues: Uranium Radiation in Jadugoda
The Santhal Aadivasis of the Jadugoda region are dying a slow death from Uranium radiation, but all Government Agencies reject this reality Translation of Uranium ke vikiran se jadugoda elake ke santhal aadivasi dheemi maut mar rahe hain, lekin sabhi sarkari tantra is sachchai se mukarate hain. By Dayamani Barla. (Translation by Vidya Jonnalagadda). The soil of Jadugoda in the Jharkhand region has provided uranium to run the Atomic Energy program in the country and develop Nuclear capabilities, but the Santhal aadivasis of this region are dying a slow death by uranium radiation. It is a living death that compels people to suffer till their last breath. It is a death the reality of which is being denied by all Government agencies. In the region of the uranium mines, in villages such as Chatikocha, Dumardeeh, Telaitaand, Echada, Bhatin, and Lipighututu, 45 of every hundred women are suffering from spontaneous abortions. The ...
  http://development-dialogues.blogspot.com/2007/04/uranium-radiation-in-jadugoda.html
*  Australian Uranium News - Research: 2012
The nation's 104 commercial nuclear power reactors consume around 55 million pounds of uranium per year, but only 4 million pounds is domestically produced, Energy Fuels says. Russia supplies half of U.S. demand by shipping down-blended uranium from decommissioned nuclear weapons under a "Megatons to Megawatts" treaty that expires in 2013. Pinon Ridge would produce 850,000 pounds of uranium, in addition to steel-strengthening vanadium, per year. Energy Fuels owns the nation's only operating conventional uranium mill in Blanding, Utah, processing 1.5 million pounds a year. U.S. production is boosted by a handful of uranium in-situ-leach plants. Serguey Novikov, a spokesman for Rosatom, Russia's nuclear energy agency, said the U.S. Commerce Department will allow Russia to send 12 million pounds - 20 percent of U.S. demand - after the treaty expires. In Colorado, Energy Fuels promises 85 jobs at Pinon Ridge that would pay from ...
  http://australianuraniumquicksearch.blogspot.com.au/2012/
*  Australian Uranium News - Research: September 2012
The nation's 104 commercial nuclear power reactors consume around 55 million pounds of uranium per year, but only 4 million pounds is domestically produced, Energy Fuels says. Russia supplies half of U.S. demand by shipping down-blended uranium from decommissioned nuclear weapons under a "Megatons to Megawatts" treaty that expires in 2013. Pinon Ridge would produce 850,000 pounds of uranium, in addition to steel-strengthening vanadium, per year. Energy Fuels owns the nation's only operating conventional uranium mill in Blanding, Utah, processing 1.5 million pounds a year. U.S. production is boosted by a handful of uranium in-situ-leach plants. Serguey Novikov, a spokesman for Rosatom, Russia's nuclear energy agency, said the U.S. Commerce Department will allow Russia to send 12 million pounds - 20 percent of U.S. demand - after the treaty expires. In Colorado, Energy Fuels promises 85 jobs at Pinon Ridge that would pay from ...
  http://australianuraniumquicksearch.blogspot.com.au/2012/09/