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*  Brevibacillus brevis - Wikipedia
The antibiotics gramicidin and tyrocidine were first isolated from it. Brevibacillus brevis forms Gram-positive (variable) rods ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brevibacillus_brevis
*  Nonribosomal peptide - Wikipedia
Antibiotics Actinomycin Bacitracin Calcium dependent antibiotic Daptomycin Vancomycin Teixobactin Tyrocidine Gramicidin ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonribosomal_peptide
*  ASMscience | Assembly of Peptide Anti
The tyrocidine system is particularly well understood with respect to variants of the product that exhibit amino acid ... Pantetheine-linked peptide intermediates in gramicidin S and tyrocidine biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 68:2069-2072. ... Transfer of D-phenylalanine from gramicidin S synthetase 1 to gramicidin S synthetase 2 in gramicidin S synthesis. J. Biochem. ... Polypeptide synthesis on protein templates: the enzymatic synthesis of gramicidin S and tyrocidine. Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas ...
  http://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555817992.chap30
*  Fritz Albert Lipmann | Biographical Memoirs: Volume 88 | The National Academies Press
... he showed that cyclic peptide antibiotics such as gramicidin and tyrocidine are synthesized by the sequential addition of amino ... Hotchkiss had isolated tyrocidin and gramicidin, the first bacterial antibiotics, from Bacillus brevis; Lipmann showed that ...
  https://www.nap.edu/read/11807/chapter/14
*  Tyrocidine - Wikipedia
Tyrocidine is the major constituent of tyrothricin, which also contains gramicidin. Tyrocidine was the first commercially ... The biosynthesis of tyrocidine involves three enzymes. Parts of its sequence are identical to gramicidin S. In 1939, the ... The biosynthesis of Tyrocidine is similar to Gramicidin S, and is achieved through the use of nonribosomal protein synthetases ... Tyrothricin was later found to be a mixture of the peptides gramicidin and tyrocidine. These were observed to have toxic ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrocidine
*  antibiotic facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about antibiotic
Tyrothricin, a mixture of the two peptides gramicidin and tyrocidine, was also found to be toxic to red blood and reproductive ...
  https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/drugs/pharmacology/antibiotic
*  Rollin Hotchkiss - Wikipedia
Their work on gramicidin and tyrocidine led to the first commercial antibiotics, and with Fritz Lipmann they found that the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rollin_Hotchkiss
*  7 Literatur - PDF
1971). Polypeptide synthesis on protein templates: the enzymatic synthesis of gramicidin S and tyrocidine. Adv. Enzymol. Relat ... 204, 1-8 Krätzschmar, J., Krause, M. and Marahiel, M.A. (1989). Gramicidin S biosynthesis operon containing the structural ... 130, 747 Mootz, H. and Marahiel, M.A. (1997a). The tyrocidine biosynthetase operon of Bacillus brevis: complete nucleotide ... 224, Pfeifer, E., Pavela-Vrancic, M. von Döhren, H. and Kleinkauf, H. (1995). Characterization of tyrocidine synthetase 1 (TY1 ...
  http://docplayer.net/659861-7-literatur-177-284-233-262.html
*  Novel antimicrobial peptide coating to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections - UBC Library Open Collections
Dubos, R.J., R.D. Hotchkiss, and A.F. Coburn, The effect of gramicidin and tyrocidine on bacterial metabolism. Journal of ... with gramicidin soon to follow in 1942 [79, 80]. Fast-forward to over 7 decades later, at least 2,600 AMPs have now been ...
  https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/24/items/1.0223168
*  phrenology101: September 2007
... gramicidin and tyrocidine. 'The drug is highly toxic!' he hollered, 'so one best keep a fair and even distance from it.' As ... Gramicidin (antibiotic obtained from the bacterial species Bacillus brevis, which is found in soil. Gramicidin is particularly ... gramicidin and tyrocidine. These were the first antibiotics to be manufactured commercially) such as it is ...
  http://phrenology1011.blogspot.com/2007/09/
*  Antibiotic - Wikipedia
... gramicidin and 80% tyrocidine, from B. brevis. It was one of the first commercially manufactured antibiotics and was very ... Tyrocidine also proved too toxic for systemic usage. Research results obtained during that period were not shared between the ... which had led to the discovery of gramicidin and had revived Florey's research in penicillin.[119] In 1939, coinciding with the ... effective in treating wounds and ulcers during World War II.[119] Gramicidin, however, could not be used systemically because ...
  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibiotic
*  Gramicidin - Wikipedia
... gramicidin (20%) and tyrocidine (80%). These were the first antibiotics to be manufactured commercially. Gramicidin is a ... Gramicidin was discovered in the United States in 1939. Gramicidin is active against Gram-positive bacteria, except for the ... Gramicidin D contains linear pentadecapeptides, that is chains made up of 15 amino acids. This is in contrast to gramicidin S, ... That gramicidin D functions as a channel was demonstrated by Hladky and Haydon, who investigated the unitary conductance of the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gramicidin
*  İNGİLİZCE İCATLAR VE BULUŞLAR | CeReZFoRuM
Tyrothricin, a mixture of the two peptides gramicidin and tyrocidine, was also found to be toxic to red blood and reproductive ...
  http://www.cerezforum.net/konu/ingilizce-icatlar-ve-buluslar.140146/
*  US20060008504A1 - Flexible bone composite - Google Patents
Gramicidin(s), Mikamycin, Polymyxin, Pristinamycin, Ristocetin, Teicoplanin, Thiostrepton, Tuberactinomycin, Tyrocidine, ...
  https://patents.google.com/patent/US20060008504A1/en
*  CN102406964A - Flexible bone composite - Google Patents
... gramicidin S, gramicidin (s), Mika neomycin, multiple polymyxin, pristinamycin, ristocetin, teicoplanin, thiostrepton, ... tuberactinomycin, tyrocidine, tyrothricin, vancomycin, viomycin, virginiamycin mold Su, zinc bacitracin), tetracyclines ( ...
  https://patents.google.com/patent/CN102406964A/en
*  Amino acid - Wikipedia
For instance, gramicidin is a polypeptide made up from mixture of D- and L-amino acids. Other compounds containing D-amino acid ... are tyrocidine and valinomycin. These compounds disrupt bacterial cell walls, particularly in Gram-positive bacteria. Only 837 ... Ketchem RR, Hu W, Cross TA (September 1993). "High-resolution conformation of gramicidin A in a lipid bilayer by solid-state ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid
*  Antibiotic resistance | Article about Antibiotic resistance by The Free Dictionary
Tyrothricin, a mixture of the two peptides gramicidingramicidin. , antibiotic obtained from the bacterial species Bacillus ... Click the link for more information. and tyrocidine, was also found to be toxic to red blood and reproductive cells in humans ... Gramicidin is particularly effective against gram-positive bacteria (see Gram's stain).. ..... ...
  http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/antibiotic+resistance
*  Cereulide synthetase gene cluster from emetic Bacillus cereus: Structure and location on a mega virulence plasmid related to...
1). A similar structure has been described for gramicidin S and enterobactin. Synthesis of those peptides is carried out by one ... Trauger JW, Kohli RM, Mootz HD, Marahiel MA, Walsh CT: Peptide cyclization catalysed by the thioesterase domain of tyrocidine ... 3A). The crystal structures of the phenylalanine-activating A domain of gramicidin S synthetase and the structure of DhbE ... ribosomal biosynthesis of gramicidin S. Embo J. 1997, 16 (14): 4174-4183. 10.1093/emboj/16.14.4174.PubMed CentralView Article ...
  https://0-bmcmicrobiol-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1471-2180-6-20
*  CCM 1089 Strain Passport - StrainInfo
Brevibacillus brevis tyrocidine biosynthesis operon, tyrocidine synthetase 1 (tycA), tyrocidine synthetase 2 (tycB), tyrocidine ... Biosynthesis of gramicidin and tryocidine in the Dubos strain of Bacillus brevis. I. Experiments with growing cultures ... The linear pentadecapeptide gramicidin is assembled by four multimodular nonribosomal peptide synthetases that comprise 16 ... The tyrocidine biosynthesis operon of Bacillus brevis: complete nucleotide sequence and biochemical characterization of ...
  http://www.straininfo.net/strainPassport.action?cultureId=34431&sort=culture&dir=asc
*  Meropenem - Wikipedia
Gramicidin. *Tyrocidine. *Isoniazid#. *Teixobactin. *#WHO-EM. *‡Withdrawn from market. *Clinical trials: *†Phase III ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meropenem
*  Vancomycin - Wikipedia
... and gramicidin (GrsA and GrsB).[41] Each peptide synthase activates codes for various amino acids to activate each domain. CepA ... "An active serine is involved in covalent substrate amino acid binding at each reaction center of gramicidin S synthetase". J. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vancomycin_hydrochloride
*  Monurol - The Free Online Dictionary and Encyclopedia (TFODE)
Gramicidin. *Tyrocidine. *Isoniazid#. *Teixobactin. *#WHO-EM. *‡Withdrawn from market. *Clinical trials: *†Phase III ...
  http://enc.tfode.com/Monurol
*  Carbapenem
Gramicidin. *Tyrocidine. *Isoniazid#. *Teixobactin. *#WHO-EM. *‡Withdrawn from market. *Clinical trials: *†Phase III ...
  https://readtiger.com/wkp/en/Carbapenem
*  BIODEGRADABLE POLYMER - BIOACTIVE MOIETY CONJUGATES - Patent application
Tyrocidine, and Vancomycin. Antifungal Agents: [0223] Amino-containing: Chlordantoin, Exalamide, Flucytosine, Loflucarban. [ ... Gramicidin(s), Isepamicin, Kanamycin(s), Lincomycin, Meclocycline, Methacycline, Micronomicin, Neomycin, Netilmicin, Novobiocin ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20140046018