*  Chloral hydrate - definition of chloral hydrate by The Free Dictionary
Define chloral hydrate. chloral hydrate synonyms, chloral hydrate pronunciation, chloral hydrate translation, English dictionary definition of chloral hydrate. n. A colorless crystalline compound, C2H3Cl3O2, used as a sedative and hypnotic drug and in the manufacture of DDT. n a colourless crystalline soluble solid...
  https://www.thefreedictionary.com/chloral+hydrate
*  CHLORAL AND CHLORAL HYDRATE
5.1 Exposure data. Chloral is a chlorinated aldehyde that found extensive use, beginning in the 1940s, as a precursor in the production of the insecticide DDT and, to a lesser extent, of other insecticides and pharmaceuticals. This use of chloral has declined steadily since the 1960s, especially in those countries where the use of DDT has been restricted. Chloral is readily converted to chloral hydrate in the presence of water. Chloral hydrate is used as a sedative before medical procedures and to reduce anxiety related to withdrawal from drugs. Wider exposure to chloral hydrate occurs at microgram-per-litre levels in drinking-water and swimming pools as a result of chlorination.. 5.2 Human carcinogenicity data. Several studies were identified that analysed risk with respect to one or more measures of exposure to complex mixtures of disinfection by-products ...
  http://inchem.org/documents/iarc/vol84/84-03-chlor-hydrate.html
*  Chloral hydrate in pediatric magnetic resonance imaging: evaluation of a 10-year sedation experience administered by...
One thousand, seven hundred and three children (946 males, 757 females) with a median age of 2.5 years (range: 4 days - 9.91 years) received chloral hydrate. Moderate to deep sedation was achieved in 1,618/1,703 (95%) of the patients, 35/1,703 (2.1%) of the patients failed to achieve moderate to deep sedation, and 47/1,703 (2.8%) of the patients woke up during MRI examination. Adverse reactions were present in 31/1,703 (1.8%) of the patients. Three severe adverse reactions occurred (0.18%). A single dose of chloral hydrate (40-60 mg/kg) was administered to 1,477/1,703 patients (86.7%). An additional dose of chloral hydrate (10-20 mg/kg), given 15 min after the first dose or when the patient woke up during the MRI examination, was required in 226/1,703 patients (13.3%). The likelihood of requiring an additional dose in children older than 2 years was 2.2 times the likelihood compared to children younger than ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00247-014-3091-0
*  chloral hydrate | Health Encyclopedia | Dartmouth-Hitchcock
Chloral hydrate is a sedative, also called a hypnotic. Chloral hydrate slows the activity of your central nervous system. This medicine has both fast-acting and long-lasting sedative effects. Chloral hydrate is for short-term use as a sedative or sleep medicine. It is sometimes given before a surgery to help you relax...
  http://www.cheshire-med.com/health_wellness/health_encyclopedia/d00147a1
*  Similar papers for Efficacy of Chloral Hydrate and Promethazine for Sedation during Electroencephalography in Children; a...
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare efficacy and safety of oral chloral hydrate (CH) and promethazine (PZ) for sedation during electroencephalography (EEG) in children. METHODS In a parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial, sixty 1-10 year old children referred to EEG Unit of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital from January 2010 to February 2011 in Yazd, Iran, were evaluated. They were randomized to receive orally 70 mg/kg chloral hydrate or promethazine 1 mg/kg. The primary outcome was efficacy in adequate sedation and successful recording of EEG. Secondary outcome included clinical side effects, time from administration of the drug to adequate sedation, caregiver's satisfaction on a Likert scale, and total stay time in EEG Unit. FINDINGS Twenty four cases with mean age 2.9±1.9 years were evaluated. Adequate sedation (Ramsay sedation score of four) was obtained in 43.3% of PZ and 100% of CH group (P=0.00001). Also in 70% of ...
  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Efficacy-of-Chloral-Hydrate-and-Promethazine-for-S-Fallah-Jalili/7fbd2202710fc72f6a7eae4fe8144b33412630ad?tab=relatedPapers
*  Drug Interactions with Warfarin: Studies with Dichloralphenazone, Chloral Hydrate and Phenazone (Antipyrine) | Clinical Science
1. Administration of dichloralphenazone, a complex of chloral hydrate and phenazone (antipyrine) caused a fall in steady-state plasma warfarin concentration and loss of anticoagulant control in five subjects.. 2. This effect of dichloralphenazone is due to stimulation of the drug-oxidizing enzymes of the liver endoplasmic reticulum by antipyrine, the non-hypnotic part of the complex. Administration of antipyrine caused a fall in steady-state plasma warfarin concentration in five subjects, a shortening of the plasma warfarin half-life, with increased urinary excretion of the metabolites of 14C-labelled warfarin in two subjects and increased urinary excretion of 6β-hydroxycortisol which is formed in the liver endoplasmic reticulum.. 3. Administration of chloral hydrate, the hypnotic part of dichloralphenazone, caused no change in anticoagulant control but a fall in steady-state plasma warfarin ...
  http://www.clinsci.org/content/40/4/351
*  Chloral hydrate rectal Uses, Side Effects & Warnings - Drugs.com
Physician reviewed chloral hydrate rectal patient information - includes chloral hydrate rectal description, dosage and directions.
  https://www.drugs.com/mtm/chloral-hydrate-rectal.html
*  Prop 65: Notice of Intent to List Chloral, Chloral Hydrate, 1,1,1,2-Tetracholoroethane and Trichloroacetic Acid
California's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) has issued a notice of intent to list the chemicals chloral, chloral hydrate, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane, and trichloroacetic acid as known to the State to cause cancer under Proposition 65. The public comment period will be open until August 26, 2013.
  http://www.tsgusa.com/news/prop-65-notice-of-intent-to-list-chloral-chloral-hydrate-1%2C1%2C1%2C2-tetracholoroethane-trichloroacetic-acid.htm
*  Mouse liver microsomal metabolism of chloral hydrate, trichloroacetic acid, and trichloroethanol leading to induction of lipid...
Metabolism of chloral hydrate (CH) by male B6C3F1 mouse liver microsomes (control-microsomes) generated free radical intermediates that resulted in endogenous lipid peroxidation, forming malondialdehyde (MDA), formaldehyde (FA), acetaldehyde (ACT), a
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Mouse-liver-microsomal-metabolism-chloral/8825194.html
*  Chloral Hydrate - Everything2.com
Chloral Hydrate is a depressant, specifically used for inducing sleep. Its chemical formula, near as I can tell, is C2H3Cl3O2. It is noteworthy for bei...
  https://everything2.com/title/Chloral+Hydrate
*  Chloral Hydrate
... may be used to treat sleep disorders and insomnia. Important prescribing information on the effects, use and risk of abuse
  http://www.allsleep.com/sleep-aids/sleep-medicine/chloral-hydrate/
*  Chloral Hydrate Support Group - Drugs.com
Ask questions and get answers about Chloral Hydrate. Our support group helps people share their own experience. 7 members, 17 news articles.
  https://www.drugs.com/answers/support-group/chloral-hydrate/
*  Kinetics of p-nitrophenyl pivalate hydrolysis catalysed by cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase | Biochemical Journal
The effects of modifiers (NAD+, NADH, propionaldehyde, chloral hydrate, diethylstilboestrol and p-nitrobenzaldehyde) on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl (PNP) pivalate (PNP trimethylacetate) catalysed by cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase are reported. In each case a different inhibition pattern is obtained to that observed when the substrate is PNP acetate; for example, propionaldehyde and chloral hydrate competitively inhibit the hydrolysis of PNP acetate, but are mixed inhibitors with PNP pivalate. The kinetic results can be rationalized in terms of different rate-determining steps: acylation of the enzyme in the case of the pivalate but acyl-enzyme hydrolysis for the acetate. This is confirmed by stopped-flow studies, in which a burst of p-nitrophenoxide is observed when the substrate is PNP acetate, but not when it is the pivalate. PNP pivalate inhibits the dehydrogenase activity of the enzyme competitively with the aldehyde substrate; ...
  http://www.biochemj.org/content/257/2/573
*  Safety and efficacy of chloral hydrate for procedural sedation in paediatric ophthalmology: a systematic review and meta...
Results A total of 6961 articles were screened and 104 were included in the review. Thirteen of these concerned paediatric ophthalmic examination, while 13 others were RCTs and were meta-analysed. CH was reported to have been administered in a total of 24 265 sedation episodes in children aged from ,1 month to 18 years. The meta-analysis showed CH had a higher OR (2.95, 95% CI 1.09 to 7.99) for successful sedation compared to other sedatives, but significant limitations apply. The commonest reported adverse events (AE) were not serious (eg, paradoxical reaction or transient vomiting) and required no intervention. Severe AE, including two deaths, were related to comorbidity, overdose or aspiration. ...
  http://bjo.bmj.com/content/101/10/1423.full
*  Plus it
Experiments were performed in 20 adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 300-330 gm (IFFA CREDO, Les Oncins, France). Animals were anesthetized with chloral hydrate (400 mg/kg, i.p.; supplemented by continuous intraperitoneal injection of chloral hydrate delivered at a rate of 60 mg · kg -1 · hr -1 using a peristaltic pump) and fixed in a conventional stereotaxic head frame (Horsley Clarke Apparatus, Unimécanique, Epinay-sur-Seine, France). Body temperature was monitored by a rectal thermometer and maintained at 36.5°C with a homeothermic blanket (Harvard Apparatus, Kent, UK). All experiments were conducted in accordance with the Policies on the Use of Animals in Neuroscience as approved by the Society for Neuroscience.. Electrophysiological analysis. Single-unit activity of SNR cells was recorded extracellularly using glass micropipettes (6-8 MΩ) filled with a 0.6 m sodium chloride solution containing 4% Pontamine Sky Blue. Single neuron ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/23/30/9929
*  Where can I get chloral hydrate? - Answered by top doctors on HealthTap
Dr. Pollard responded: Not Recommended. This drug is a schedule IV drug. Meaning it can only be obtained by prescription from a doctor. Please talk to your local healthcare provider to discuss whether this drug is right for you.
  https://www.healthtap.com/user_questions/152876-where-can-i-get-chloral-hydrate
*  DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: C: Chloral Hydrate
Provides information on usage, precautions, side effects and brand names when available. Data provided by various government agencies and health-related organizations. ...
  http://dmoztools.net/Health/Pharmacy/Drugs_and_Medications/C/Chloral_Hydrate/
*  IAB blog: Re: BRYONET: Hoyer's Solution & chloral hydrate
not) funny (2) anniversary greeting (1) Asexual fragmentation (1) awards (5) Books (13) Bryological Times (8) bryophyte flora (2) Bryophyte photo of the week (16) bryophytes and herbicides (9) BT (1) celebrations (1) Classification (19) Courses (4) Crum workshop (1) Evolutionary biology (1) Extreme bryophytes (22) Field trips (3) Forays (3) Grants (1) IAB blog (7) IAB BT (1) IAB meetings (9) Job offers (3) Journals (5) meetings (2) Metzgeria (1) mitochondrial markers (1) Monophyly (62) morphology (4) moss culture (70) Moss gardens (3) Moss Horticulture (2) Most important bryophyte (5) moulds (1) News (9) newsletters (1) nominees (1) Paraphyly (15) Phylocode (3) pictures (3) polls (2) Recent literature (2) seminars (2) Species concepts (11) The Bryological Times (1) Websites (18) what is bryology? (5) Workshops (10) ...
  http://internationalassociationofbryologists.blogspot.com/2009/11/re-bryonet-hoyers-solution-chloral_09.html
*  IAB blog: Re: BRYONET: Hoyer's Solution & chloral hydrate
not) funny (2) anniversary greeting (1) Asexual fragmentation (1) awards (5) Books (13) Bryological Times (8) bryophyte flora (2) Bryophyte photo of the week (16) bryophytes and herbicides (9) BT (1) celebrations (1) Classification (19) Courses (4) Crum workshop (1) Evolutionary biology (1) Extreme bryophytes (22) Field trips (3) Forays (3) Grants (1) IAB blog (7) IAB BT (1) IAB meetings (9) Job offers (3) Journals (5) meetings (2) Metzgeria (1) mitochondrial markers (1) Monophyly (62) morphology (4) moss culture (70) Moss gardens (3) Moss Horticulture (2) Most important bryophyte (5) moulds (1) News (9) newsletters (1) nominees (1) Paraphyly (15) Phylocode (3) pictures (3) polls (2) Recent literature (2) seminars (2) Species concepts (11) The Bryological Times (1) Websites (18) what is bryology? (5) Workshops (10) ...
  http://internationalassociationofbryologists.blogspot.com/2009/11/re-bryonet-hoyers-solution-chloral_11.html
*  IAB blog: Re: BRYONET: Hoyer's Solution & chloral hydrate
not) funny (2) anniversary greeting (1) Asexual fragmentation (1) awards (5) Books (13) Bryological Times (8) bryophyte flora (2) Bryophyte photo of the week (16) bryophytes and herbicides (9) BT (1) celebrations (1) Classification (19) Courses (4) Crum workshop (1) Evolutionary biology (1) Extreme bryophytes (22) Field trips (3) Forays (3) Grants (1) IAB blog (7) IAB BT (1) IAB meetings (9) Job offers (3) Journals (5) meetings (2) Metzgeria (1) mitochondrial markers (1) Monophyly (62) morphology (4) moss culture (70) Moss gardens (3) Moss Horticulture (2) Most important bryophyte (5) moulds (1) News (9) newsletters (1) nominees (1) Paraphyly (15) Phylocode (3) pictures (3) polls (2) Recent literature (2) seminars (2) Species concepts (11) The Bryological Times (1) Websites (18) what is bryology? (5) Workshops (10) ...
  http://internationalassociationofbryologists.blogspot.com/2009/11/re-bryonet-hoyers-solution-chloral_80.html
*  Chloral Hydrate | Reference Library - Drugs | Drugs | Healthways, Inc.
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  http://www.wholehealthmd.com/Main/drugs/641.aspx
*  General Schematic Showing Typical Modes of Gas Hydrate Occurrence Relative to the Geologic Environment | GRID-Arendal
Thin (A) and thickly veined (B) sediment-displacing gas hydrates (white) in fine-grained sediment (grey); (C) pore-filling gas hydrates in sand; (D) gas hydrate mounds on the sea floor (hydrate has an orange coating from oil and is draped with grey sediment); (E) disseminated gas hydrates (white specks) in fine-grained sediment (grey); (F) gas hydrates (white) in coarse sands (grey). For any form of publication, please include the link to this page: www.grida.no/resources/6615
  http://www.grida.no/resources/6615
*  Specific critical concentrations of low dosage hydrate inhibitors in a THF-NaCl hydrate formation solution
Hydrate formation and its attendant problems are well known in the oil and gas industry. The desire to reduce the costs and environmental impact of traditional hydrate inhibitors has led to a focus on the design, development and evaluation of novel and environmentally friendly low dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHIs). In this study, two LDHIs, namely Luvicap® EG and Gaffix® VC-713, were tested using tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a hydrate promoter and a ball-stop rig. The ball stop-time was used to determine the inhibition efficiency. The concentration effect of inhibitors, salts and solvents on the ball-stop time was investigated. Results indicated that the inhibition efficiency of an inhibitor is sensitive to the micro-environment of the THF-hydrates activities which includes the concentration and types of these additives. The reproducibility and consistency of the test results were also largely dependent on the concentration of ...
  https://espace.curtin.edu.au/handle/20.500.11937/37862
*  Daniel Huynh death
September 28, 2001 A final settlement was reached Thursday in the wrongful death lawsuit a couple filed against a dentist after their 3-year-old son died after being given anesthesia at a Houston dental clinic. Kenny Huynh and Tracy Phan of Houston, parents of Daniel Huynh, contend their son was given a dangerous sedative cocktail that proved fatal, given his size. An autopsy showed Daniel died from the drugs' toxic effect. The toddler was given a drink containing Demerol, Phenergan and chloral hydrate when he went in for a root canal and fillings. "They gave (Daniel) three drugs that an cause problems with breathing, two of which they gave him in excessive amounts" said lawyer Steve P. McCarthy today. McCarthy, who represented Daniel's parents, said court records also show that the clinic staff failed to monitor the toddler's condition after he was sedated. When the staff finally noticed the child was in distress, they did not have the equipment on hand to attempt to revive ...
  http://blog.dentistthemenace.com/2001/09/daniel-huynh-death.html
*  Plus it
Extracellular levels of serotonin (5-HT) and the regulation of 5-HT release by the 5-HT1A receptor were examined after single and repeated treatment with different types of antidepressant drugs: the selective 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine, the selective norepinephrine uptake inhibitor desipramine and the 5-HT2A/2C/alpha 2 receptor antagonist mianserin (each at 15.0 mg/kg). Extracellular levels of 5-HT were measured using in vivo microdialysis in the striatum and hippocampus of rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate. Acute administration of fluoxetine transiently elevated the levels of 5-HT in the striatum and hippocampus; desipramine did not change 5-HT levels, and mianserin slightly decreased 5-HT levels in the hippocampus. Rats were administered these antidepressant drugs for either 1 or 14 days and studied 48 hr after the final injection. Repeated treatment with fluoxetine increased base-line levels of 5-HT in the striatum and hippocampus; repeated treatment with ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/274/2/866