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*  Toxins | Free Full-Text | Reduced Toxicity of Shiga Toxin (Stx) Type 2c in Mice Compared to Stx2d Is Associated with...
... lethal dose in mice of the toxins. We found that serine 291 was associated with increased toxicity in vivo and that either ... We conclude that both amino acids at positions 291 and 297 in Stx2c contribute to its decreased stability and in vivo toxicity ... We made mutations at these two sites to create intermediate toxins between Stx2c and Stx2d, and determined the 50% cytotoxic ... Shiga toxin (Stx) is an AB5 ribotoxin made by Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). These organisms cause diarrhea, ...
  https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/7/6/2306
*  Humans not the major target of Shiga toxin | EurekAlert! Science News
These bacteria can produce large amounts of the Shiga toxin and release it into the surrounding environment. ... of consuming Shiga-packing E.coli in a contaminated bag of spinach -- have always had the cold comfort of being told that not ... all common bacteria make humans extremely sick, only the strains that have integrated the Shiga gene into their DNA. ... Paper titled, Shiga Toxin Toxicity and Resistance in Tetrahymena, will be presented at 12 noon to 1:30 p.m., Monday, Dec. 3. ...
  https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-12/asfc-hnt112807.php
*  Frontiers | Shiga toxin 2-induced intestinal pathology in infant rabbits is A-subunit dependent and responsive to the tyrosine...
... that of the infant rabbit expresses the Shiga toxin receptor Gb3. We also demonstrate that Shiga toxin treatment of the infant ... that of the infant rabbit expresses the Shiga toxin receptor Gb3. We also demonstrate that Shiga toxin treatment of the infant ... However, a consensus regarding the role Shiga toxins play in the onset of diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis is lacking. One of ... However, a consensus regarding the role Shiga toxins play in the onset of diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis is lacking. One of ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcimb.2012.00135/full
*  Identification of TLR4 as the Receptor That Recognizes Shiga Toxins in Human Neutrophils | The Journal of Immunology
Comparison of the relative toxicities of Shiga-like toxins type I and type II for mice. Infect. Immun. 61: 3392-3402. ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Stx. Shiga toxin. Stx1. Shiga toxin 1. Stx2. Shiga toxin 2.. ... STEC produce two main AB5 toxin variants-Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-consisting of five B chains that are ... The interactions of human neutrophils with shiga toxins and related plant toxins: danger or safety? Toxins (Basel) 4: 157-190. ...
  http://www.jimmunol.org/content/191/9/4748
*  In silico analysis of Shiga toxins (Stxs) to identify new potential vaccine targets for Shiga toxin-producingEscherichia coli |...
... of structurally and functionally related toxins serving as the main virulence factors for pathogenicity of the Shiga toxin- ... Do the A subunits contribute to the differences in the toxicity of Shiga toxin 1 and Shiga toxin 2? Toxins 7(5):1467-1485 ... In silico analysis of Shiga toxins (Stxs) to identify new potential vaccine targets for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli ... Shiga toxins belong to a family of structurally and functionally related toxins serving as the main virulence factors for ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40203-017-0022-4
*  GA-10 (Clone 4) ATCC ® CRL-2393™ Homo sapiens Burkitt's lym
GA-10 (Clone-4) cells exhibit sensitivity to Shiga Toxin (Stx) in toxicity studies. ...
  https://www.atcc.org/en/Products/All/CRL-2393.aspx
*  Tips From Other Journals - American Family Physician
Systemic spread of Shiga toxin causes renal endothelial cell toxicity and may be responsible for hemolytic uremic syndrome. ... Shiga toxin is a family of toxins produced by a variety of organisms, including Shigella dysenteriae type I and Shiga toxin- ... Identification of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains requires detection of the Shiga toxin gene by polymerase chain ... Foodborne diseases: shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC). Pediatr Infect Dis J. October 1999;18:909-10. ...
  https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0401/p2194.html
*  Shiga toxin - Wikipedia
... to which the renal toxicity of Shiga toxin may be attributed. Gb3 is also found in central nervous system neurons and ... Shiga toxin (Stx) - true Shiga toxin - is produced by Shigella dysenteriae. Shiga-like toxins 1 and 2 (SLT-1 and 2 or Stx-1 and ... "Phylogenetic diversity and similarity of active sites of Shiga toxin (stx) in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) ... Shiga toxins are a family of related toxins with two major groups, Stx1 and Stx2, expressed by genes considered to be part of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shiga_toxin
*  Ability of Manganese in Neutralizing Fatal Shiga Toxin, Reveals Carnegie Mellon Study
An element usually found in nature may give way to neutralize the potentially toxic effects of a compound known as Shiga toxin ... "We know the toxicity levels of manganese in humans; we know ways to administer it. While further testing is needed to determine ... Shiga toxin binds to GPP130, hitching a ride on a route that doesn't go to the lysosome. Instead, the toxin is carried to the ... "I knew that Shiga toxin was one of the key cargo molecules that bypass the lysosome as they go from the endosome to the Golgi ...
  http://www.medindia.net/news/Ability-of-Manganese-in-Neutralizing-Fatal-Shiga-Toxin-Reveals-Carnegie-Mellon-Study-96485-1.htm
*  Host-Pathogen Interactions: What the EHEC Are We Learning from Host Genome-Wide Screens? | mBio
... colleagues potentially enriched for loci that provide protection against early T3SS and delayed Shiga toxin-mediated toxicity. ... EHEC secretes one or more Shiga toxins that underlie the development of HUS. As the expression of some prophage-embedded Shiga ... Clostridium difficile toxin B and anthrax toxin [6, 7]). The strong selective pressure for cells resistant to toxin uptake ... CRISPR screen reveals that EHEC's T3SS and Shiga toxin rely on shared host factors for infection. mBio 9:e01003-18. doi:10.1128 ...
  https://mbio.asm.org/content/9/5/e01837-18
*  BSN: Ciliate Molecular Biology
Tetrahymena as a model system to study shiga toxin induction, uptake, toxicity and evolution ...
  http://www.biotechsciencenews.com/Event/168-Ciliate-Molecular-Biology-.html
*  ASMscience | Volume 11, Issue 5
... demonstrates that Shiga toxin does not require preassembly to cause cell toxicity. Shiga toxin is an AB5 toxin produced by ... No Preassembly Required for Shiga Toxin Activity. New research out of the University of Cincinnati in Cincinnati, Ohio, ... Bacterial DNA can be damaged by UV radiation, toxins, or by DNA replication error, but bacteria have sophisticated mechanisms ...
  http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbe/11/5?tabReq=asmnews
*  ASMscience | The Evolution of Bacteri
Comparison of the relative toxicities of Shiga-like toxins type I and type II for mice. Infect. Immun. 61:3392-3402.. ... Isogenic lysogens of diverse shiga toxin 2-encoding bacteriophages produce markedly different amounts of shiga toxin. Infect. ... Melton-Celsa, A. R.,, J. E. Rogers,, C. K. Schmitt,, S. C. Darnell, and, A. D. O'Brien. 1998. Virulence of Shiga toxin- ... Lindgren, S. W.,, J. E. Samuel,, C. K. Schmitt, and, A. D. O'Brien. 1994. The specific activities of Shiga-like toxin type II ( ...
  http://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555815622.ch10
*  Frontiers | A Disease Model of Muscle Necrosis Caused by Aeromonas dhakensis Infection in Caenorhabditis elegans | Microbiology
In another example, shiga-like toxin-producing enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) known to elicit toxicity to C. elegans with ... In another example, shiga-like toxin-producing enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) known to elicit toxicity to C. elegans with ... In contrast, the severity of muscle damage and toxicity produced by the A. dhakensis hemolysin-deletion mutant is attenuated. ... In contrast, the severity of muscle damage and toxicity produced by the A. dhakensis hemolysin-deletion mutant is attenuated. ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.02058/full
*  Toxicity and immunogenicity of a verotoxin 1 mutant with reduced globotriaosylceramide receptor binding in rabbits. - Semantic...
A further reduction in the toxicity of Phe30Ala would be required for its use as a natural toxoid to protect against human ... Retrograde transport from the Golgi complex to the ER of both Shiga toxin and the nontoxic Shiga B-fragment is regulated by ... Differentiation-associated toxin receptor modulation, cytokine production, and sensitivity to Shiga-like toxins in human ... Tumor-specific targeting of pancreatic cancer with Shiga toxin B-subunit.. *Matthias Maak. , Ulrich Nitsche. , +9 authors. ...
  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Toxicity-and-immunogenicity-of-a-verotoxin-1-mutan-Bast-Brunton/912b87aad9e701ccdf55545db8d2bc2652841013
*  Fanatic Cook: Shiga Toxin: One Of Man's Most Lethal Poisons (Part 1)
Toxin. Toxic Dose (mg). Host. Lethal toxicity compared with:. Strychnine. Snake venom. ... Other examples of protein toxins made by bacteria are tetanus toxin, diphtheria toxin, and botulinum toxin.. These toxins are ... coli that make shiga or shiga-like toxins (called STEC for Shiga Toxin-producing E. coli).1 Thousands are hospitalized.. You're ... H7 Just One Among Many Shiga Toxin-Making Bacteria. ________. 1 Recommendations For Diagnosis Of Shiga Toxin-Producing ...
  http://fanaticcook.blogspot.com/2010/02/shiga-toxin-one-of-mans-most-lethal.html
*  Toxins | Free Full-Text | Ouabain Protects Human Renal Cells against the Cytotoxic Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 and Subtilase...
The majority of cases are associated with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). In Argentina, HUS is endemic and ... HGEC and HK-2 were pretreated with OUA and then incubated with the toxins. OUA protected the HGEC viability from Stx2 and SubAB ... Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria Mycotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity and Toxicokinetics. Next Article in Special Issue. Soluble ... Keywords: shiga toxin; subtilase cytotoxin; Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome; Ouabain; prevention shiga toxin; subtilase cytotoxin; ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/9/7/226
*  Toxins | Free Full-Text | Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria Mycotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity and Toxicokinetics
Furthermore, in vitro studies suggest immunomodulating effects of most emerging toxins and a reproductive health hazard of ... Besides, some less known Alternaria toxins, especially the genotoxic altertoxins and stemphyltoxin III, should be incorporated ... although in vivo toxicity and toxicokinetic data are limited. Whereas the Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, moniliformin and ... the low total body clearance in pigs and broiler chickens and the limited toxicity data, a health risk cannot be completely ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/9/7/228
*  Carnegie Mellon study reveals potential of manganese in neutralizing deadly S... ( PITTSBURGHCarnegie Mellon University...)
After entering the body Shiga toxin is secreted by the infecting bact...,Carnegie,Mellon,study,reveals,potential,of,manganese, ... in,neutralizing,deadly,Shiga,toxin,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device ... "We know the toxicity levels of manganese in humans; we know ways to administer it. While further testing is needed to determine ... Shiga toxin binds to GPP130, hitching a ride on a route that doesn't go to the lysosome. Instead, the toxin is carried to the ...
  http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-technology-1/Carnegie-Mellon-study-reveals-potential-of-manganese-in-neutralizing-deadly-Shiga-toxin-21560-1/
*  EFFECTIVE BACTERIOLYSIS OF SHIGA TOXIN-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI O157: H7 CAUSED BY SPECIFIC BACTERIOPHAGE ISOLATED FROM PIG...
EFFECTIVE BACTERIOLYSIS OF SHIGA TOXIN-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI O157: H7 CAUSED BY SPECIFIC BACTERIOPHAGE ... Comparative Toxicity of Cryoprotectants on Staphylococcus aureus at Room Temperature Rachel C. Soltys, Joany Van Balen, Armando ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Escherichia coli are bacteria that ... Źródło izolacji Human Człowiek Milk Mleko Calf Cielę Shiga toxin Toksyna Shiga Sensitivity A Podatniość A Stx1 ++ Stx2 +++ Stx1 ...
  http://docplayer.net/1988174-Effective-bacteriolysis-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-caused-by-specific-bacteriophage-isolated-from-pig-slurry.html
*  Degradation and inactivation of Shiga toxins by nitrogen gas plasma | AMB Express | Full Text
Western blotting further showed the gas plasma treatment degraded the A subunit, which mediates the toxicity of Stx. Moreover, ... Some STEC produce Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and/or Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), a relatively stable protein toxin, necessitating the ... Quantification by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that both toxins were efficiently degraded to less than 1/ ... Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) leads to food poisoning by causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic ...
  https://amb-express.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s13568-017-0380-7
*  Diarrhea - Gastrointestinal Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition
... difficile colitis or increase the likelihood of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection, ... Their use should be restricted to patients with watery diarrhea and no signs of systemic toxicity. However, there is little ... and from multiple secretagogues and bacterial toxins that affect enterocyte function. ...
  http://www.merckmanuals.com/en-pr/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/symptoms-of-gi-disorders/diarrhea
*  Nitrogen limitation, toxin synthesis potential, and toxicity of cyanobacterial populations in Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie...
Shiga Toxin. A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by ... It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1. ... Shiga Toxin 2. A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains ... This bacteria produces several toxins one of which is botulinum toxin A. This toxin causes the symptoms of food poisoning.... ... Nitrogen limitation, toxin synthesis potential, and toxicity of cyanobacterial populations in Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie ...
  https://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2052760/Nitrogen-limitation-toxin-synthesis-potential-and-toxicity-of-cyanobacterial-populations-in-Lake.html
*  Alison Weiss, PhD - ..WB1PRD02W-med.uc.edu
Differentiation between structurally homologous Shiga 1 and Shiga 2 toxins by using synthetic glycoconjugates. Angewandte ... Toxicity of anthrax toxin is influenced by receptor expression. Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI, 15 9, 1330-6 ... The lab is particularly interested in the actions of the Pertussis and Shiga Toxins encoded by the bacteria. Model systems ... Comparative analysis of the abilities of Shiga toxins 1 and 2 to bind to and influence neutrophil apoptosis. Infection and ...
  https://med.uc.edu/molgen/molgen-directory/faculty-directory/Index/Pubs/weissaa/
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Manfred J. Schmitt
A Simple Fluorescence-based Reporter Assay to Identify Cellular Components Required for Ricin Toxin A Chain (RTA) Trafficking ... Pubmed ID: 19853568 Like Ricin, Shiga, and Cholera toxins, yeast K28 is an A/B toxin that depends on endocytosis and retrograde ... maturation and toxicity of the viral protein toxins. The strategy of using eukaryotic viral toxins to effectively penetrate and ... Adapting Yeast As Model to Study Ricin Toxin a Uptake and Trafficking Toxins. , Pubmed ID: 22069743 The plant A/B toxin ricin ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/Manfred+J._Schmitt