*  THE NICEGUIDELINES BLOG: September 2011
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes leukaemia or chronic inflammatory disease in ,5% of infected hosts. The level of proviral expression of HTLV-1 differs significantly among infected people, even at the same proviral load (proportion of infected mononuclear cells in the circulation). A high level of expression of the HTLV-1 provirus is associated with a high proviral load and a high risk of the inflammatory disease of the central nervous system known as HTLV-1- associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). But the factors that control the rate of HTLV-1 proviral expression remain unknown. Here we show that proviral integration sites of HTLV-1 in vivo are not randomly distributed within the human genome but are associated with transcriptionally active regions. Comparison of proviral integration sites between individuals with high and low levels of proviral expression, and between provirus-expressing and provirus non- expressing cells from within an individual, ...
  http://niceguidelines.blogspot.com/2011/09/
*  A linkage map of endogenous murine leukemia proviruses." by W N. Frankel, J P. Stoye et al.
Thirty endogenous proviruses belonging to the modified polytropic (Mpmv) class of murine leukemia virus (MLV) were identified by proviral-cellular DNA junction fragment segregation in several sets of recombinant inbred mice. Twenty-six Mpmv loci were mapped to chromosomal regions by matching proviral strain distribution patterns to those of previously assigned genes. Like other endogenous nonecotropic MLVs, Mpmv loci were present on several chromosomes in all strains examined. We pooled recombinant inbred strain linkage data from 110 MLV loci and selected marker genes in order to construct a chromosomal linkage map. Every mouse chromosome was found to harbor at least one proviral insertion, and several regions contained multiple integrations. However, the overall distribution of the 110 mapped proviruses did not deviate significantly from a random distribution. Because of their polymorphism in inbred strains of mice, and the ability to score as many as 57 ...
  https://mouseion.jax.org/stfb1990_1999/20/
*  Proviruses - Biology-Online Dictionary
Home » Special:WhatLinksHere/Electromagnetic spectrum » Special:WhatLinksHere » Restructured cell » Special:WhatLinksHere » Proviruses. proviruses duplex dNA sequences in a eukaryotic chromosome (corresponding to the genome of an rNA retrovirus) that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology. ...
  http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Proviruses
*  Plus it
Purpose: Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), initially identified as a tumor suppressor gene, has recently been reported to be ectopically expressed in primary adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) cells. We incorporated CADM1 into flow cytometric analysis to reveal oncogenic mechanisms in human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) infection by purifying cells from the intermediate stages of ATL development. Experimental Design: We isolated CADM1- and CD7-expressing peripheral blood mononuclear cells of asymptomatic carriers (ACs) and ATLs using multi-color flow cytometry. FACS-sorted subpopulations were subjected to clonal expansion and gene expression analysis. Results: HTLV-1-infected cells were efficiently enriched in CADM1+ subpopulations (D, CADM1posCD7dim; and N, CADM1posCD7neg). Clonally expanding cells were detected exclusively in these subpopulations in ACs with high proviral load, suggesting that the appearance of D and N could be a surrogate marker of progression from AC to early ATL. ...
  http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2014/04/11/1078-0432.CCR-13-3169
*  Retroviruses, retroelements and their restrictions | Frontiers Research Topic
Retroviruses have a unique evolutionary association with their host; having a fossil record on the genomic DNA of the host chromosome. Most mammalian genomes carry, as part of their genetic make-up, retroviruses in the form of endogenous proviruses that are inherited like cellular genes following germ-line transmission of some retroviral genomes, accumulated throughout evolution in many organisms. Indeed, recently available genomic data revealed that a large portion of the mammalian genome is derived from ancient transposable elements. In particular, retroelements, transported by an intracellular copy-and-paste process involving an RNA intermediate, constitute a majority of these mobile genetic elements. Endogenous retroviruses, also called long-terminal-repeat (LTR)-type retroelements, are structurally similar to infectious retroviruses and constitute one class of these retroelements in a range of mammalian species. The non-LTR members, with reverse transcription occurring exclusively ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/483/retroviruses-retroelements-and-their-restrictions
*  Basic Sciences - Accueil Library
An built-in retrovirus successfully turns into a part of the mobile genome, yet with the variation that the virus to a wide quantity keeps regulate over its personal expression via nontranslated sequences within the lengthy terminal repeat (L TR). a few retroviruses additionally code for nonstructural proteins that additional keep watch over proviral expression. Integration alterations the telephone genome; it provides viral genes, and in terms of transducing retroviruses additionally provides cell-derived oncogenes which were integrated into the viral genome. Integration may also have effects for mobile genes. The transcriptional indications in a provirus can turn on expression of neighboring mobile genes; the mixing even can disrupt and hence inactivate mobile genes. those results of retroviral genomes occur in cis; they're known as insertional mutagenesis and are the topic of this quantity. nearly 10 years have handed on the grounds that W. Hayward, S. Astrin, and their colleagues chanced on ...
  http://4pneus.ch/index.php/library/category/basic-sciences
*  Viruses | Free Full-Text | Construction of a High Titer Infectious HIV-1 Subtype C Proviral Clone from South Africa | HTML
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C is currently the predominant subtype worldwide. Cell culture studies of Sub-Saharan African subtype C proviral plasmids are hampered by the low replication capacity of the resulting viruses, although viral loads in subtype C infected patients are as high as those from patients with subtype B. Here, we describe the sequencing and construction of a new HIV-1 subtype C proviral clone (pZAC), replicating more than one order of magnitude better than the previous subtype C plasmids. We identify the env-region for being the determinant for the higher viral titers and the pZAC Env to be M-tropic. This higher replication capacity does not lead to a higher cytotoxicity compared to previously described subtype C viruses. In addition, the pZAC Vpu is also shown to be able to down-regulate CD4, but fails to fully counteract CD317.
  http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/4/9/1830/htm
*  Tolero Pharmaceutical, Inc.
PIM kinases are frequently overexpressed in various hematologic and solid tumors, allowing cancer cells to evade apoptosis and promoting tumor growth.2 In inflammatory disorders, PIM-1 kinase has been shown to mediate interleukin-22 signaling in cell-based and animal models. TP-3654 is an investigational agent and is not approved by the US FDA or any other regulatory authorities.. PIM=proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus.. ...
  http://toleropharma.com/TP-3654.html
*  A1 Receptors
ERG and FLI1 are closely related members of the ETS family of transcription factors and have been identified as essential factors for the function and maintenance of normal hematopoietic stem cells. regulatory sites. Collectively, these results spotlight the dual importance of ETS factors in t(8;21) leukemogenesis, both while transcriptional regulators of the oncofusion protein itself as well as proteins that facilitate AML1-ETO binding. Intro E-twenty-six (ETS) specific transcription factors are a family of > 20 helix-loop-helix website transcription factors that have been implicated in a myriad of cellular processes, including hematopoiesis.1 The hallmark ETS element protein involved in hematopoietic development is SPI1 (Spleen focus forming virus Proviral Integration site 1; PU.1), which activates gene manifestation during myeloid and B-lymphoid cell development. Other ETS factors include the 2 closely related transcriptional activator proteins ERG (Ets Related Gene) and FLI1 (Friend Leukemia ...
  http://www.buyresearchchemicalss.net/category/a1-receptors/
*  JCI - The role of HIV integration in viral persistence: no more whistling past the proviral graveyard
Data accumulated to date indicate that HIV-infected cells persist for prolonged periods and undergo clonal expansion; it remains uncertain to what degree clonally expanded populations contribute to the population of replication-competent cells, which represent the relevant reservoir that requires eradication or long-term control. In an exhaustive analysis of 213 uninduced proviruses, Ho and colleagues found that only 11.3% were full length (21). It is not known whether any of these proviruses were members of a clonally expanded population, but the data indicate that few integrants, expanded or not, are replication competent. Cohn and colleagues (17) analyzed 75 proviruses from expanded populations and did not identify any full-length HIV proviruses, suggesting the frequency of clonally expanded populations with replication-competent virus is low and may not contribute significantly to the HIV reservoir.. In contrast to the findings described ...
  https://jci.org/articles/view/80564
*  Provirus - Wikipedia
A provirus is a virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell. In the case of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages), proviruses are often referred to as prophages. This state can be a stage of virus replication, or a state that persists over longer periods of time as either inactive viral infections or an endogenous viral element. In inactive viral infections the virus will not replicate itself but through replication of its host cell. This state can last over many host cell generations. Endogenous retroviruses are always in the state of a provirus. When a (nonendogenous) retrovirus invades a cell, the RNA of the retrovirus is reverse-transcribed into DNA by reverse transcriptase, then inserted into the host genome by an integrase. A provirus does not directly make new DNA copies of itself while integrated into a host genome in this way. Instead, it is passively replicated along with the host genome and passed on to the original cell's offspring; all descendants of the infected ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provirus
*  Most Dormant HIV Particles Found To Be Highly Mutated And Harmless - Xtalks
Researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine say that the methods currently in use to measure levels of dormant HIV in patients, may be fatally flawed. According to the study investigators, many of the latent HIV proviruses - or those whose genetic information has been incorporated into the DNA of the infected host - are heavily mutated and are unlikely to be harmful.. Currently, HIV proviruses are quantified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify certain HIV-specific genes. If most HIV genes are defective to the point of nonfunctioning, as the researchers have found, then this technique may be over estimating the number of latent viruses, which have the potential to reactivate and sicken the patient.. In order to come to their conclusions, the Johns Hopkins researchers sequenced the provirus genomes from 19 patients who were receiving treatment for HIV. In their analysis, they found that over 90 percent of the sequenced provirus contained a number of mutations which ...
  https://xtalks.com/dormant-hiv-particles-highly-mutated-454/
*  Complete suppression of viral gene expression is associated with the onset and progression of lymphoid malignancy: observations...
Using the BLV-associated ovine model of leukemia and based on the observations in two experimental sheep, we provide evidence for the role of virus and oncogene silencing as an important step in the onset of lymphoid malignancy. In the first animal, S2531, we identified a correlation between the genetic modification of the proviral structure and the emergence of leukemia. We found a Tax-mutated (TaxK303) replication-deficient provirus integrated into the genome of the malignant B-cell clone while recombinant functional provirus (TaxE303) had been consistently monitored over the aleukemic period. Although sequencing of individual tax clones identified the presence of a replication-deficient proviral form in the inoculum, our data provide no clues as to how this provirus might persist in the infected host. It will be important to sort out from our future studies whether the TaxK303 defective provirus found at the time of leukemia development in S2531 was already present in the pre-tumoral clone ...
  https://retrovirology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1742-4690-4-51
*  Letter from Harold Varmus to Inder M. Verma, Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories [1979]
The seven interesting ones fall into three groups. The first was represented by a single revertant which has an insertion of ca. 5.5x10^6 Mr near the upstream end of the ASV provirus. The insert appears to anneal with MLV cDNA, lacks RI or Xho sites, has Bam and Bgl I1 sites in positions which do not accord with the MoMLV clone 1 map. In addition, the left end of the ASV provirus (upstream end) is deleted (ca.10^6 daltons gone). There seem to be about 2 or 3 MLV proviruses in this clone. The second type was isolated three times, all presumably the same cell in view of the restriction data. This also has an insertion of about 5x10^6 mr, but not quite at the upstream end of the ASV provirus (prob about 500-1000 bases from the end). The insert has sites for Bam, RI, and Bgl II which don't bear any obvious relation to the Mo-MLV map, but the new fragments detected with ASV appear to be detected with MLV cDNA. The only difficulty is that there are a lot of new MLV proviruses ...
  https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/retrieve/ResourceMetadata/MVBBDT
*  Virus Answers | Wyzant Resources
During the lytic cycle, proviruses are created by integrating viral genetic information within the host cells genetic information. is this true or false? ...
  https://www.wyzant.com/resources/answers/virus
*  ICTR in the News: Defective HIV Proviruses Hinder Immune System Response and Cure | ICTR
The following article profiles work performed in part by ICTR researcher Robert F. Siliciano from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Mutant forms
  http://ictr.johnshopkins.edu/news_announce/ictr-in-the-news-defective-hiv-proviruses-hinder-immune-system-response-and-cure/
*  Integrated Lentivirus Copy Number Quantification by qPCR
The Lenti-X Provirus Quantitation Kit allows you to rapidly determine the copy number of integrated lentiviruses (proviruses) present in a mixed or clonal population of transduced cells. Quantitative PCR assay can be performed in a few hours.
  http://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Viral_Transduction/Lentiviral_Transduction_Tools/Lentivirus_Titration/Copy_Number?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=7GjTZjbl1Qkev6KMH0oOhGee:S&PROD_pses=ZGF792B55D5799259A8CDFBB1B84C76356251E8E249B8D75C53F224AFA0FDA18C35C11938908626D975AD6853AFFF4EC7EF909AAE5AA114DAF
*  Integrated Lentivirus Copy Number Quantification by qPCR
The Lenti-X Provirus Quantitation Kit allows you to rapidly determine the copy number of integrated lentiviruses (proviruses) present in a mixed or clonal population of transduced cells. Quantitative PCR assay can be performed in a few hours.
  http://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Viral_Transduction/Lentiviral_Transduction_Tools/Lentivirus_Titration/Copy_Number?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=FSJLRhSZFmlLQ5E6eZAT8GAg:S&PROD_pses=ZGFA0D5A214AA761A744F6021C9B68EA17DCBFA73C2B02FBAA8231ABC6915B084986576BCDCC243683A704E3591B98014BADA9021BC6196ADC
*  Integrated Lentivirus Copy Number Quantification by qPCR
The Lenti-X Provirus Quantitation Kit allows you to rapidly determine the copy number of integrated lentiviruses (proviruses) present in a mixed or clonal population of transduced cells. Quantitative PCR assay can be performed in a few hours.
  http://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Viral_Transduction/Lentiviral_Transduction_Tools/Lentivirus_Titration/Copy_Number?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=NwiGAAHFHD_AmVnJWg6zSNhl:S&PROD_pses=ZG780DFB83747358153AD481D2023D6B73C0D4E3CA99FDE1419A9CC8165092B40E42F1E079A966DF2C7DB3493D420D9A43068C263A2E8E592B
*  Integrated Lentivirus Copy Number Quantification by qPCR
The Lenti-X Provirus Quantitation Kit allows you to rapidly determine the copy number of integrated lentiviruses (proviruses) present in a mixed or clonal population of transduced cells. Quantitative PCR assay can be performed in a few hours.
  http://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Viral_Transduction/Lentiviral_Transduction_Tools/Lentivirus_Titration/Copy_Number?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=mS9we8lasQoOBEhh4z68Z1XS:S&PROD_pses=ZG24CA6CD21F893DB2211BFD869A1046153AAE5E6E6A547D20D2E8947542930AAD58F78515F2B25806F8CD774A8E5D93025CE3E90060403205
*  Integrated Lentivirus Copy Number Quantification by qPCR
The Lenti-X Provirus Quantitation Kit allows you to rapidly determine the copy number of integrated lentiviruses (proviruses) present in a mixed or clonal population of transduced cells. Quantitative PCR assay can be performed in a few hours.
  http://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Viral_Transduction/Lentiviral_Transduction_Tools/Lentivirus_Titration/Copy_Number?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=n8D5rkfQsJU3jr1JhGbIlWVw:S&PROD_pses=ZGAADD53FD57B1643F1F1F8593087840C791738E6E6EBD5AFE9FE70CD936FA157B036B7F504F3F7FBE1954F1120584AB02291DFD5E019521D6
*  Integrated Lentivirus Copy Number Quantification by qPCR
The Lenti-X Provirus Quantitation Kit allows you to rapidly determine the copy number of integrated lentiviruses (proviruses) present in a mixed or clonal population of transduced cells. Quantitative PCR assay can be performed in a few hours.
  http://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Viral_Transduction/Lentiviral_Transduction_Tools/Lentivirus_Titration/Copy_Number?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=yvYq0JHmtFlRDN8eTStCv9Rk:S&PROD_pses=ZGBC3B2B10C516C5CB158805A1B0B09E83D07DDA17ADC3A67C523FE122EC88445BE7D9BCD83BC5CCDCB924CBD9BB2E9340E0089D7ACED03EC3
*  UWI Mona Research Engine [beta]
Proviral Loads and Clonal Expansion of HTLV-1 Infected Cells following Vertical Transmission: A 10 year follow-up of Children in Jamaica. ...
  http://mord.mona.uwi.edu/biblio/listotherauth.asp?auth=Hisada,%20Michie
*  ERVV1 HUMAN » HERV-V 19q13.41 provirus ancestral Env polyprotein 1 - Membranome database
MTEKFLFLYL SLLPMPLLSQ AQWNENSLVS FSKIIASGNH LSNCWICHNF ITRSSSYQYI LVRNFSLNLT FGSGIPEGQH KSVPLQVSLA NSAHQVPCLD LTPPFNQSSK TSFYFYNCSS LNQTCCPCPE GHCDRKNTSE EGFPSPTIHP MSFSPAGCHP NLTHWCPAKQ MNDYRDKSPQ NRCAAWEGKE LITWRVLYLL PKAHTVPTWP KSTVPLGGPL SPACNQTIPA GWKSQLHKWF DSHIPRWACT PPGYVFLCGP QKNKLPFDGS PKITYSTPPV ANLYTCINNI QHTGECAVGL LGPRGIGVTI YNTTQPRQKR ALGLILAGMG AAIGMIAPWG GFTYHDVTLR NLSRQIDNIA KSTRDSISKL KASIDSLANV VMNNRLALDY LLAEQGGVCA VISKSCCIYV NNSGAIEEDI KKIYDEVTWL HNFGKGDSAG SIWEAVKSAL PSLTWFVPLL GPAALNSLLS PLWPLSL ...
  http://membranome.org/protein.php?pdbid=ERVV1_HUMAN