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*  Early-onset Alzheimer's disease - Wikipedia
... beta-amyloid, and pro-inflammatory compounds.. Beta-amyloid is a small piece of a larger protein called the amyloid precursor ... Deposits of amyloid can be seen in sections of brain tissue. This amyloid protein forms plaques and neurofibrillary tangles ... The protein the gene codes for (PS1) is an integral membrane protein. As stated by Ikeuchi (2002)[10] it cleaves the protein ... The major molecules involved in these pathways include: glial cells (specifically astrocytes and microglia), ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early-onset_Alzheimer_disease
*  NLRP3 Inflammasome: Activation and Regulation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration
D. M. Walsh, I. Klyubin, J. V. Fadeeva et al., "Naturally secreted oligomers of amyloid beta protein potently inhibit ... β in the brain, APP/PS1 mice with NLRP3 deficiency demonstrated improved Aβ clearance by microglia and preserved memory and ... β is generated through the amyloidogenic pathway by cleaving the amyloid precursor protein (APP) into the intramembrane Aβ ... As part of the innate immunity, the complement system is one of the first that responds to tissue damage during aging and is ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/690243/
*  Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched...
... onset amyloid deposition and cognitive deficits in transgenic mice expressing a double mutant form of amyloid precursor protein ... Proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose membrane (0.45 µm; Amersham, GE Healthcare, Life Sciences, Vélizy-Villacoublay, ... M. Cosenza-Nashat, M.-L. Zhao, H.-S. Suh et al., "Expression of the translocator protein of 18 kDa by microglia, macrophages ... M.-K. Chen and T. R. Guilarte, "Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO): molecular sensor of brain injury and repair," Pharmacology ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijad/2016/5696241/
*  Amyloid beta antibody | acris-antibodies.com
... encodes a cell surface receptor and transmembrane precursor protein that is cleaved by secretases to form a… ... ABPP is expressed in all fetal tissues examined with the highest levels in brain, kidney, heart and spleen with weak expression ... Beta amyloid peptides were applied to SDS-PAGE and transferred to a PVDF membrane.The blot was probed with 2µg/ml Beta amyloid ... 2. Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B by beta-amyloid peptides and interferon-gamma in murine microglia. (Bonaiuto C; J ...
  https://www.acris-antibodies.com/target/amyloid-beta-antibody.htm
*  β-Amyloid-Protein Immunoreactivity in Skin is Not a Reliable Marker of Alzheimer's Disease: An Autopsy Controlled Study |...
Recent studies have shown that the process underlying β/A4 deposition in AD is not restricted to the brain. Soluble β/A4 ... Amyloid beta-protein deposition in tissues other than brain in Alzheimer's disease, Nature 341: 226-230 (1989).Google Scholar ... Processing of ß-amyloid precursor protein in microglia and astrocytes favors an internal localization over constitutive ... Microangiopathy, the vascular basement membrane and Alzheimer's disease; a review, Brain Res. Bull. 24: 677-686 (1990).Google ...
  https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-9145-7_24
*  Alzheimer's Disease - DocCheck Flexikon
Beta amyloid is a peptide protein formed by the enzyme clipping of the normal neuron membrane protein known as amyloid ... apolipoprotein E is a major lipoprotein for lipid transport in the cerebrospinal fluid and between cells in the brain tissue. A ... precursor protein (APP). APP is a natural neuroprotective protein. The amyloid beta protein clusters into plaques on blood ... that exist in lysosomes and inflammation enhance amyloid beta aggregation and this in turn mediates the activation of microglia ...
  http://flexikon.doccheck.com/en/Alzheimer%27s_Disease
*  Cathepsin S - Wikipedia
"Lysosomal processing of amyloid precursor protein to A beta peptides: a distinct role for cathepsin S". The Biochemical Journal ... This is because the cysteine enzyme can no longer act together with other proteases to break up the brain extracellular matrix ... It also cleaves chondroitin sulfate, heparan sulfate and proteoglycans of the basal membrane. Cathepsin S plays an active role ... Cathepsin S is expressed by antigen presenting cells including macrophages, B-lymphocytes, dendritic cells and microglia. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathepsin_S
*  Frontiers | The Cellular Prion Protein: A Player in Immunological Quiescence | Immunology
... such as the brain, eye, placenta, pregnant uterus and testes, while at the same time it is expressed in most cells of the ... such as the brain, eye, placenta, pregnant uterus and testes, while at the same time it is expressed in most cells of the ... the physiological role of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) remains elusive. Here, we present a novel concept suggesting that ... the physiological role of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) remains elusive. Here, we present a novel concept suggesting that ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2015.00450/full
*  Frontiers | Repetitive Traumatic Brain Injury and Development of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Potential Role for...
... of the potential for lasting effects of repetitive traumatic brain injury. While we have come to better understand the clinical ... modalities that have demonstrated some promise for future use in the diagnosis and/or tracking of CTE or repetitive brain ... modalities that have demonstrated some promise for future use in the diagnosis and/or tracking of CTE or repetitive brain ... discussed with particular attention to the timing of release and potential utility in situations of repetitive traumatic brain ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2012.00186/full
*  A Lack of Amyloid β Plaques Despite Persistent Accumulation of Amyloid β in Axons of Long-Term Survivors of Traumatic Brain...
An increased percentage of long amyloid beta protein secreted by familial amyloid beta protein precursor (beta APP717) mutants ... Immunofluorescence and distinct morphologic characteristics demonstrated macrophages/microglia in the brain tissue in short- ... Kinesin-mediated axonal transport of a membrane compartment containing beta-secretase and presenilin-1 requires APP. Nature. ... Beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP) as a marker for axonal injury after head injury. Neurosci Lett. 1993;160:139-144. [ ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3014260/
*  Application # 2018/0142011. Antibodies to Pyroglutamate Amyloid-B and Uses Thereof - Patents.com
The invention provides an antibody or antigen binding fragments thereof that binds to 3pE A.beta. and methods of making and ... beta.-amyloid precursor protein (APP). Deposition of A.beta. peptides in brain is hypothesized to be an early and necessary ... AD Brain Tissue [0094] Reactivity of A.beta./pE3/1 to plaques in human AD brain tissue was investigated both in formalin-fixed ... Induction of plaque removal may be by activation of microglia around plaques and by destabilizing plaques by removing a stable ...
  http://patents.com/us-20180142011.html
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
... which is derived from sequential proteolytic cleavage of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase and γ- ... Our method can thus be adapted for the analysis of the proteome and insoluble proteins extract from human brain tissue and mice ... In eukaryotes, most of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that encode secreted and membrane proteins are localized to the surface of ... Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) whose phagocytic function has been described in a ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/19295912/transcriptome-analysis-synaptoneurosomes-identifies-neuroplasticity
*  Innate Inflammation as the Common Pathway of Risk Factors Leading to Transient Ischemic Attacks and Stroke | The New York...
... in response to anti-amyloid-beta-immunotherapy (IT). Old amyloid-precursor-protein-transgenic (APP-Tg) mice develop CAA and ... Brain microglia which mediate the brain's immune response are thought to promote neuritic plaque formation via an inflammatory ... Success in stroke treatment strategies is limited due to the low tolerance of brain tissue to ischemia and the small number of ... This phenomenon seems to indicate that under yet unknown conditions the membrane of platelets exhibit a higher number of ...
  https://www.nyas.org/events/2010/innate-inflammation-as-the-common-pathway-of-risk-factors-leading-to-transient-ischemic-attacks-and-stroke/
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders | HTML
... and tau proteins in the brain [66]. Under normal conditions, a transmembrane protein amyloidprecursor protein (AβPP) is ... A common feature in neurodegenerative diseases is the existence of hallmark protein(s) for each, such as Tau and beta-amyloid ( ... The senescent microglia reduce the ability in clearance of aberrant proteins, such as ApoE, α-synuclein, and Aβ42, etc [109]. ... Free radicals are capable to freely pass through the plasma membrane and result in membrane leakage and cell death. ROS damage ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/12/24438/htm
*  Interrelation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Neurodegenerative Disease: Role of TNF
"Accumulation of amyloid precursor protein in the mitochondrial import channels of human Alzheimer's disease brain is associated ... in the membrane of astrocytes and microglia [2, 17, 83, 84]. On one hand this can promote the phagocytic activity of microglia ... P. B. Shelat, M. Chalimoniuk, J.-H. Wang et al., "Amyloid beta peptide and NMDA induce ROS from NADPH oxidase and AA release ... and that microglia are less efficiently recruited to the areas of neurodegeneration resulting in delayed tissue repair in the ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/610813/
*  Role of microglia in disease - Wikipedia
Microglia synthesize amyloid precursor protein (APP) in response to excitotoxic injury. Plaques result from abnormal ... A study has shown that direct injection of amyloid into brain tissue activates microglia, which reduces the number of neurons. ... The proteases then possibly could cause the cleaving required to turn precursor molecules into the beta amyloid that ... proteolytic cleavage of membrane bound APP. Amyloid plaques can stimulate microglia to produce neurotoxic compounds such as ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Role_of_microglia_in_disease
*  Bachem - Peptide Trends July 2016
M. Citron et al., Generation of amyloid beta protein from its precursor is sequence specific, Neuron 14(3) 661-700 (1995) ... the peptide attaches to the integrin receptors of brain tumors while the peptide is expelled from healthy tissues. The team's ... D. Ozawa et al., Shuttling protein nucleolin is a microglia receptor for amyloid beta peptide 1-42, Biological and ... Mirko: I studied biotechnology and afterwards I did my PhD in biophysics with the focus on integral membrane proteins. ...
  http://www.bachem.com/service-support/newsletter/peptide-trends-july-2016/
*  Alzheimer Amyloid Protein Precursor in the Rat Hippocampus: Transport and Processing through the Perforant Path | Journal of...
1990) Developmental and differential expression of beta amyloid protein precursor mRNAs in mouse brain. Biochem Biophys Res ... 1994) βA4-Amyloid protein precursor mRNA isoforms without exon 15 are ubiquitously expressed in rat tissues including brain, ... 1993) Early and rapid de novo synthesis of Alzheimer βA4-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in activated microglia. Glia 9:199-210 ... Amyloid precursor protein is synthesized by retinal ganglion cells, rapidly transported to the optic nerve plasma membrane and ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/18/23/9629
*  Microglia and Alzheimer Disease
... amyloid precursor protein sequences in Alzheimer and normal brain tissue by light and electron microscopy. J Neurosci Res 31: ... Beta amyloid is focally deposited within the outer basement membrane in the amyloid angiopathy of Alzheimer's disease. An ... 1 beta dissociates beta_amyloid precursor protein and beta_amyloid peptide secretion. FEBS Lett 354:289_292 Verbeek MM, Otte ... Developmental and differential expression of beta amyloid protein precursor mRNAs in mouse brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun ...
  http://microglia.net/oldpage/ad.htm
*  A Review: Inflammatory Process in Alzheimer's Disease, Role of Cytokines
J. Löffler and G. Huber, "β-Amyloid precursor protein isoforms in various rat brain regions and during brain development," ... to 135-kilodalton membrane-associated proteins in neural and nonneural tissues," Proceedings of the National Academy of ... "Enhancement of beta-amyloid precursor protein transcription and expression by the soluble interleukin-6 receptor/interleukin-6 ... β plaque deposition and neurodegeneration and modulation of the microglia/macrophage phenotype in amyloid precursor protein ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2012/756357/
*  P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and Oxidative Stress: Focus on Alzheimer's Disease
... to blood-brain barrier leakage in transgenic human amyloid precursor protein mice and in humans with cerebral amyloid ... "Beta amyloid effects on expression of multidrug efflux transporters in brain endothelial cells," Brain Research, vol. 1418, pp ... V. D. Bianca, S. Dusi, E. Bianchini, I. Dal Prà, and F. Rossi, "β-Amyloid activates the O⨪2 forming NADPH oxidase in microglia ... Indeed, the oxygen requirements of the brain tissue accounts for approximately 20% of the total human oxygen consumption [15]. ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/7905486/
*  Benefit of Oleuropein Aglycone for Alzheimer's Disease by Promoting Autophagy
... being a natural product of proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), due to the sequential action of ... that serves as a scaffold protein for p62 mediated labeling [16]. Additionally, BNIP3L is a mitochondrial membrane protein ... that achieved functional recovery and reduced amyloid beta burden was 12.5 mg/Kg of food [89] that would correspond to 37.5- ... astrocytes and microglia) [6], vascular dysfunction due to fibrillary amyloid deposition at cerebral vessel walls [7], ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2018/5010741/
*  Indian Patents. 257811:NOVEL COMPOSITION IN THE FORM OF A MEDICAMENT FOR NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS
INF-gamma by itself can also lead to the transcriptional inhibition of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (Ringheeim G. E. et ... APP is a glycosylated, single-membrane-spanning protein expressed in a wide variety of cells in many mammalian tissues.. APP ... Microglia represent a natural mechanism by which protein aggregates and debris can be removed from the brain and there are ... amyloid beta peptide comprises fibrillar amyloid beta peptide.. 7. The method of claim 6 wherein said amyloid beta peptide is ...
  http://www.allindianpatents.com/patents/257811-novel-composition-in-the-form-of-a-medicament-for-neurological-disorders
*  Frontiers | The Role of Microglia in Retinal Neurodegeneration: Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson, and Glaucoma | Frontiers in...
The extracellular deposits of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and intraneuronal accumulations of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (pTau) are ... The retina is an extension of the brain and therefore the inflammatory response in the brain can occur in the retina. The brain ... The extracellular deposits of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and intraneuronal accumulations of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (pTau) are ... The retina is an extension of the brain and therefore the inflammatory response in the brain can occur in the retina. The brain ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnagi.2017.00214/full
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
... which is derived from sequential proteolytic cleavage of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase and γ- ... This necessitates understanding the physiological effects of cerebral ischemia on brain tissue over time and is a major area of ... While the outer surface membrane and associated TATS membrane components appear to be continuous, there are substantial ... Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) whose phagocytic function has been described in a ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/26024224/a-spectral-graph-regression-model-for-learning-brain-connectivity