*  Notch regulates blastema proliferation and prevents differentiation during adult zebrafish fin regeneration | Development
Zebrafish have the capacity to regenerate several organs, including the heart and fins. Fin regeneration is epimorphic, involving the formation at the amputation plane of a mass of undifferentiated, proliferating mesenchymal progenitor-like cells, called blastema. This tissue provides all the cell types that form the fin, so that after damage or amputation the fin pattern and structure are fully restored. How blastema cells remain in this progenitor-like state is poorly understood. Here, we show that the Notch pathway plays an essential role during fin regeneration. Notch signalling is activated during blastema formation and remains active throughout the regeneration process. Chemical inhibition or morpholino-mediated knockdown of Notch signalling impairs fin regeneration via decreased proliferation accompanied by reduced expression of Notch target genes in the blastema. Conversely, overexpression of a constitutively active form of the Notch1 receptor (N1ICD) in the regenerating fin leads to ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/early/2013/01/23/dev.087346
*  Patente US2782926 - Apparatus for measuring fineness modulus - Google Patentes
Feb. 26, 1957 w. E. SAXE 2,782,926 APPARATUS FOR MEASURING FINENESS MODULUS Filed Feb. 26, 195] 8 Sheets-Shet 5 m2 /33 /94 A95 A96 /97 $202 $205 $204 .205 5206 $2 /NVNTOR. Wag-ER E. Snxa BY Hi5 ATTORNEYS. IgHRRIS, K/dcH, FOSTER &H MI?/$ Feb. 26, 1957 w. E. SAXE 2,782,926 ' APPARATUS FOR MEASURING FINENESS MODULUS Filed'Feb. 26, 1951 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 l/y VENTOR. WALTER 5. 5H x5 B [-115 n rroklvavsl HER/PIS, K/EcH, F05 T15R69: Hmmls Feb. 26, 1957 w. E. SAXE 2,782,926 APPARATUS FOR MEASURING FINENESS MODULUS Filed Feb. 26, 1951 a Sheets-Sheet 5 BY HIS HTTORNEKS. HARRIS, K n: CH, FOSTER 3: HARRIS Feb. 26, 1957 w. E. SAXE 2,782,926 APPARATUS FOR MEASURING FINENESS MODULUS Filed Feb. 26, 1951 8 Sheets-Sheet 6 ig L4 365 66 /NVE NTOR. 376 WALTER 5.5mm: BY H15 HTTORNCKS. HARP/5, K/ECH, F05 75/? a HH ems ag. ai -fled; Feb. 26, 1957 w. E. SAXE 2,732,926 APPARATUS FOR MEASURING FINENESS MODULUS Filed Feb. 26, 1951 8 Sheets-Sheet v A L 1 L 1 1 asl 52.2 093 3914 395 390 WALTER 15.56))(5 B) HIS HTTOPNEKi- ...
  http://www.google.es/patents/US2782926?dq=flatulence
*  Activin-betaA Signaling Is Required for Zebrafish Fin Regeneration
Vertebrate limb regeneration occurs in anamniotes such as newts, salamanders, and zebrafish. After appendage amputation, the resection site is covered by a wound epidermis capping the underlying mature tissues of the stump from which the blastema emerges. The blastema is a mass of progenitor cells that constitute an apical growth zone. During outgrowth formation, the proximal blastemal cells progressively leave the zone and undergo the differentiation that results in the replacement of the amputated structures. Little is known about the mechanisms triggering regenerative events after injury. The zebrafish caudal fin provides a valuable model to study the mechanisms of regeneration. Zebrafish blastemal cells express specific genes, such as the homeobox-containing transcription factors msxB and msxC, and secreted signal FGF20a. In this study, we set out to identify signals that are transcriptionally upregulated after fin amputation and before blastema formation. Accordingly, a gene encoding a ...
  https://dloale.wordpress.com/2007/08/12/activin-betaa-signaling-is-required-for-zebrafish-fin-regeneration/
*  Regeneration of breeding tubercles on zebrafish pectoral fins requires androgens and two waves of revascularization |...
Sexually dimorphic breeding tubercles (BTs) are keratinized epidermal structures that form clusters on the dorsal surface of the anterior rays of zebrafish male pectoral fins. BTs appear during sexual maturation and are maintained through regular shedding and renewal of the keratinized surface. Following pectoral fin amputation, BT clusters regenerate after the initiation of revascularization, but concomitantly with a second wave of angiogenesis. This second wave of regeneration forms a web-like blood vessel network that penetrates the supportive epidermis of BTs. Upon analyzing the effects of sex steroids and their inhibitors, we show that androgens induce and estrogens inhibit BT cluster formation in intact and regenerating pectoral fins. Androgen-induced BT formation in females is accompanied by the formation of a male-like blood vessel network. Treatment of females with both androgens and an angiogenesis inhibitor results in the formation of undersized BT clusters when ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/early/2013/10/02/dev.095992
*  Fin - Wikipedia
A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure. Fins typically function as foils that produce lift or thrust, or provide the ability to steer or stabilize motion while traveling in water, air, or other fluid media. Fins are also used to increase surface areas for heat transfer purposes, or simply as ornamentation. Fins first evolved on fish as a means of locomotion. Fish fins are used to generate thrust and control the subsequent motion. Fish, and other aquatic animals such as cetaceans, actively propel and steer themselves with pectoral and tail fins. As they swim, they use other fins, such as dorsal and anal fins, to achieve stability and refine their maneuvering. Foil shaped fins generate thrust when moved, the lift of the fin sets water or air in motion and pushes the fin in the opposite direction. Aquatic ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fin
*  Wholesale Fineness Powder, China Wholesale Fineness Powder Manufacturers & Suppliers | Made-in-China.com
Wholesale Fineness Powder - Select 2017 high quality Wholesale Fineness Powder products in best price from certified Chinese Powder Coating System manufacturers, Powder Metal Parts suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
  http://www.made-in-china.com/products-search/hot-china-products/Wholesale_Fineness_Powder.html
*  Control of tissue growth by Yap relies on cell density and F-actin in zebrafish fin regeneration | Development
Our study identifies an in vivo mechanism that regulates Yap activity within the zebrafish caudal fin blastema based on cell density differences along the regenerating tissue. The mesenchymal cells seem to respond to a mechanotransduction process that involves changes in cell morphology, junction assembly and cytoskeleton remodeling, which together lead to a graded control of tissue growth via Yap, the Hippo pathway effector.. Once formed, the blastema exhibits spatial compartmentalization (Nechiporuk and Keating, 2002). We show that Yap intracellular localization associates with these areas and could account for the different levels of proliferation described. Remarkably, the same Yap dynamics also correlates with the degree of cell density along the blastema PD axis. In distal high cell density domains, Yap is mainly cytoplasmic (inactive), whereas in proximal lower cell density domains, Yap is largely nuclear (active). The functional relevance of Yap intracellular localization was confirmed ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/142/16/2752
*  ACTION ALERT: Tell New York to Stop Importing Shark Fins! ... - Care2 News Network
Despite most of the United States banning shark fins, New York continues to import shark fins as they are an Asian delicacy, and used to make soup in certian ethnic cultures.
  http://www.care2.com/news/member/525884267/3044190
*  Animal Fin Stock Footage ~ Royalty Free Stock Videos | Pond5
Animal Fin Videos ... 8,929 royalty free stock videos and video clips of Animal Fin. Footage starting at $15. Download high quality 4K, HD, SD & more. BROWSE NOW |||
  https://www.pond5.com/stock-video-footage/1/animal-fin.html
*  THE MYSTERIOUS LITTLE FATTY FIN | Journal of Experimental Biology
Sitting on the back of many fishes, in between the dorsal fin and the tail, is an enigmatic little fatty flap of skin called the adipose fin. It looks a bit like an extra dorsal fin, and though it's present in eight large groups of fishes, no one knows why it's there. It might help prevent flow from wrapping over the top of the fish; it might help counteract forces from the anal fin, which is in about the same place, but on the ventral side; it might be a flow sensor; or it might not do anything, persisting due to developmental constraints. Whatever the fin's function, most fisheries scientists think it's not terribly important, because they regularly snip it off to mark millions of hatchery fish released into the wild each year.. Thomas Reimchen and Nicola Temple at the University of Victoria in Canada devised a simple test to find out how important the adipose fin really is. They swam steelhead trout at speeds between about one and three body lengths per second, measured the tail beat ...
  http://jeb.biologists.org/content/208/1/v.2
*  THE MYSTERIOUS LITTLE FATTY FIN | Journal of Experimental Biology
Sitting on the back of many fishes, in between the dorsal fin and the tail, is an enigmatic little fatty flap of skin called the adipose fin. It looks a bit like an extra dorsal fin, and though it's present in eight large groups of fishes, no one knows why it's there. It might help prevent flow from wrapping over the top of the fish; it might help counteract forces from the anal fin, which is in about the same place, but on the ventral side; it might be a flow sensor; or it might not do anything, persisting due to developmental constraints. Whatever the fin's function, most fisheries scientists think it's not terribly important, because they regularly snip it off to mark millions of hatchery fish released into the wild each year.. Thomas Reimchen and Nicola Temple at the University of Victoria in Canada devised a simple test to find out how important the adipose fin really is. They swam steelhead trout at speeds between about one and three body lengths per second, measured the tail beat ...
  http://jeb.biologists.org/content/208/1/v.2.full
*  Matrix metalloproteinase expression and function during fin regeneration in zebrafish: analysis of MT1-MMP, MMP2 and TIMP2. -...
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play key roles in the turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) and, thereby, function as key regulators of cell-ECM interactions during development. In spite of their importance during developmental processes, relatively little has been reported about the role of these metalloproteinases during limb development and regeneration. To approach the problem of cell-ECM interactions during limb (fin) regeneration, we have utilized zebrafish as an experimental model. Based on previous MMP cloning studies from our laboratory, the current study has focused on the expression of membrane-type 1 metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), gelatinase A (MMP-2) and endogenous tissue inhibitor 2 of metalloproteinases (TIMP-2) during fin regeneration in adult zebrafish. In situ analysis indicated co-expression of zmt1-mmp, zmmp-2, and ztimp-2 mRNA transcripts in regenerating caudal fins. In situ gelatin-zymography confirmed the presence of active metalloproteinases in regenerating ...
  https://www.kennedy.ox.ac.uk/publications/224898
*  Zebrafish as a vertebrate model to study retinoic acid signalling in head mesoderm and pectoral fin development and to...
Retinoic acid (RA) is a key signal involved in the posteriorization of vertebrate neural ectoderm. The major enzyme involved in biosynthesis of RA during embryonic development is retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2). A zebrafish mutant in raldh2 (neckless; nls), which is devoid of RA signalling during embryonic development, exhibits anterior-posterior (AP) patterning defects in the neural ectoderm. Using the nls mutant I found that loss of RA also affects AP patterning of the cranial mesoderm. I depleted RA signalling in embryos and found that markers of the posterior cranial mesoderm are shortened along the AP axis, correlating with the severity of RA depletion. I determined the timing for requirement of RA to establish the AP-level of the posterior border of head mesoderm. Together with the pattern of raldh2 expression, I conclude that during gastrulation, RA biosynthesis in prospective mesoderm is a key signal for the specification of the AP extent of the posterior cranial mesoderm. ...
  https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/handle/123456789/7813
*  "Determining How Defects in Connexin 43 Cause Skeletal Diseases" by Quynh V. Ton
The zebrafish fin is composed of multiple bony fin rays. Each fin ray is comprised of multiple segments separated by joints. Regulatory mechanisms that control joint morphogenesis and ray segment length in zebrafish fins are not fully understood. We utilize the fin length mutants short fin (sof b123) and another long fin (alf dty86) to provide insight into these processes. The sof b123 mutant has short fins and short segments due to a mutation in the gap junction protein gene connexin43 (cx43). In contrast, the alf dty86 mutant has long fins, long segments, and over-expression of cx43. Thus, the two mutants exhibit two opposing phenotypes. For example, the sof b123 mutant exhibits reduced cx43 mRNA and the alf dty86 mutant exhibits increased cx43 mRNA. Cx43 knockdown in alf dty86 rescues the segment length phenotype suggesting that Cx43 activity regulates joint formation. These data suggest that Cx43 is involved in two independent pathways: promoting cell ...
  http://preserve.lehigh.edu/etd/1654/
*  Fgf signaling instructs position-dependent growth rate during zebrafish fin regeneration | Development
When D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson's On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of D'Arcy Thompson's work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/early/2005/10/26/dev.02101
*  Pectoral fin Stick to the body | Discus Fish for Sale - CLC Discus Enterprise
My discus got pectoral fin stick to their body. In fact one got the left pectoral fin stick and the other the right pectoral fin. I've also notice
  http://www.clcdiscus.com/pectoral-fin-stick-body/
*  Mechanism of pectoral fin outgrowth in zebrafish development | Development
When D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson's On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of D'Arcy Thompson's work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/139/22/4291
*  California shark fin ban signed into law | Reuters
Shark fin soup will disappear from the Golden State's menu in January 2013 under legislation signed into law on Friday by California Governor Jerry Brown.
  https://www.reuters.com/article/us-sharkfin-california-idUSTRE79700K20111008
*  Animal Fin Stock Photos and Pictures | Getty Images
Find the perfect Animal Fin stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Download premium images you can't get anywhere else.
  http://www.gettyimages.com/photos/animal-fin
*  anal fin ray count
enumeration of the soft anal fin rays. In fishes where the smaller rays in front gradually grade into larger rays, these smaller anterior rays are included in the count, e.g. Ictaluridae, Esocidae, Gadidae. Where the first small rays abruptly…
  http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/en_ichthyology/520/anal
*  Pseudomugil gertrudae, the Spotted Blue-eye, with care, maintenance...
Easy. Egg scatters. Sexual dimorphism: Males are brightly colored and have large fins with numerous black spots. The first spines of the anal fin as well as the first rays of the pectoral fin are rigid, elongated and bright yellow. Females are mutely colored and have slightly deeper bodies than males. Their fins are small and lack extended pectoral fin rays and extended anal fin spines. In nature, spawning takes place from October to December. In the aquarium, 10-20 potential mates should be conditioned by feeding them primarily live and frozen proteins one week prior to breeding. The spawning tank should contain a sponge filter, mosses, small-leaved ground covers, baby grasses and weighted spawning mops for receiving the eggs and consequent fry. Courting displays typically occur in the morning. Males initiate mating by chasing females and extending their dorsal and anal fins. Females that agree to mate accompany the males to the spawning place. Males may ...
  http://www.badmanstropicalfish.com/profiles/profile193.html
*  Fibroblast growth factor signaling controls fin regeneration in zebrafish | Life Science and Technology News | Department of...
Department of Life Science and Technology home page - Fibroblast growth factor signaling controls fin regeneration in zebrafish - Department of Life Science and Technology, School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology. Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology found that fibroblast growth factors (...
  http://educ.titech.ac.jp/bio/eng/news/2016_08/052492.html
*  Chiloglanis batesii : fisheries
Dorsal spines (total): 1; Dorsal soft rays (total): 5-6; Anal spines: 0; Vertebrae: 30 - 33. Diagnosis: labial disk rather large; mandibular barbels reduced; mandibular teeth numbering at most 6+6, often 5+5, and occasionally 4+4; adipose fin rounded posteriorly, beginning slightly ahead of anal-fin origin; caudal fin deeply forked; eyes rather large; very pronounced sexual dimorphism: males (even in premature stages) with enlarged caudal fin, in particular the upper lobe which also becomes more pointed or even filamentous; males also have a large and rounded humeral process (Ref. 57223). Coloration: live specimens: diffuse dark vertical bars (that may even form a marbled pattern) delimiting better defined paler (yellowish or olivaceous) areas; dark vertical bars also present at bases of pectoral and caudal fin bases, but caudal-fin lobes pale yellow; finally, anal fin marked with dark spots, but these are less distinct than those in C. disneyi collected at the same locality (Ref. 57223). ...
  http://fishbase.ca/summary/9487
*  Development and evolution of the muscles of the pelvic fin
Locomotor strategies in terrestrial tetrapods have evolved from the utilisation of sinusoidal contractions of axial musculature, evident in ancestral fish species, to the reliance on powerful and complex limb muscles to provide propulsive force. Within tetrapods, a hindlimb-dominant locomotor strategy predominates, and its evolution is considered critical for the evident success of the tetrapod transition onto land. Here, we determine the developmental mechanisms of pelvic fin muscle formation in living fish species at critical points within the vertebrate phylogeny and reveal a stepwise modification from a primitive to a more derived mode of pelvic fin muscle formation. A distinct process generates pelvic fin muscle in bony fishes that incorporates both primitive and derived characteristics of vertebrate appendicular muscle formation. We propose that the adoption of the fully derived mode of hindlimb muscle formation from this bimodal character state is an evolutionary innovation that was ...
  https://espace.curtin.edu.au/handle/20.500.11937/9688
*  Dentex hypselosomus, Yellowback sea-bream
Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. This species is distinguished by the following set of characters: D XII,10; pectoral fin rays usually 15 and rarely 16; small orbit diameterl, 2.66-3.87, mean 3.32, in head length; snout angle blunt, 82°-88°, mean 83°. Colour of the body: red dorsally, becoming pale red ventrally with a yellowish gold sheen, snout vivid yellow, 3 large fluorescent yellow blotches dorsally beneath dorsal fin base and a black iris sized yellow spot on base of posteriormost soft dorsal fin ray, clearly visible from oblique dorsal view; eye uniformly prominent reddish-gold; prominent yellow blotch on anterior nostril and snout region; dorsal fin membrane and rays orange-yellow to pale red but with a longitudinal hyaline stripe beneath fin base, and soft membrane and rays saffron-yellow (Ref. 75039). ...
  http://fishbase.org/summary/67288