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*  Differential effect of lithium treatment on fenfluramine-induced decreases in food intake and locomotor activity in rats.
Administration of fenfluramine to rats decreased 1-h food intake and locomotor activity. Short-term (2-6 days) but not long-term (21-25 days) lithium treatment potentiated fenfluramine-induced suppression of food intake. However, neither short-term n
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Differential-effect-lithium-treatment-fenfluramine/22282367.html
*  FENFLURAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE (CAS 404-82-0) Market Research Report 2018
The report generally describes fenfluramine hydrochloride, examines its uses, production methods, patents. FENFLURAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE market situation
  https://marketpublishers.com/report/industry/chemicals_petrochemicals/fenfluramine_hydrochloride_404-82-0_market_research_report.html
*  Hormonal responses to fenfluramine in depressive subtypes. | The British Journal of Psychiatry
In order to study putative differences in central neurotransmitter function in depressive subtypes, serum cortisol and prolactin responses to the putative serotonin agonist fenfluramine were examined in 30 subjects with major depression. Patients with endogenous depression (melancholia) as defined by each of ICD-9, DSM-III, RDC and Newcastle scale demonstrated a reduced prolactin response to 60 mg oral fenfluramine when compared with non-endogenous subjects. This was independent of either prolactin or cortisol baseline levels, and indicates that there are differences in brain neurotransmitter function in the endogenous and non-endogenous subtypes of depression. Basal prolactin levels were reduced in bipolar compared with unipolar subjects, and delusional compared with non-delusional patients, although there were no differences in the prolactin responses to fenfluramine between these subgroups. Basal cortisol levels and cortisol response to ...
  http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/157/4/551
*  Effects of fenfluramine and ritanserin on prolactin response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in obese patients: evidence for...
In order to study the hypothesized impairment of the serotoninergic system in human obesity, an insulin tolerance test (ITT) was carried out on 12 obese normoprolactinemic women and on 6 normal-weight women before (A) and after (B) the administration of a serotoninergic drug, fenfluramine (60 mg twice a day per os for 7 days). After a washout period, a new ITT (C) followed the administration of fenfluramine at the same dose, associated with a specific S2 blocker receptor agent, ritanserin (30 mg/day for the first 2 days and 20 mg/day for a further 5 days). In obese subjects, the prolactin (PRL) response to ITT A was reduced as compared to the controls: in 6 patients ('nonresponders') the PRL levels did not change, while in the other 6 ('responders') they increased (p , 0.003) but less than in the controls (p , 0.02). In normal-weight subjects, the administration of fenfluramine alone or with ritanserin did not modify the PRL response to ITT. In the ...
  https://arpi.unipi.it/handle/11568/15342
*  Evidence that increased 5-HT release evokes region-specific effects on blood-oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic...
This study aimed to determine the potential of in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods as a non-invasive means of detecting effects of increased 5-HT release in brain. Changes in blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast induced by administration of the 5-HT-releasing agent, fenfluramine, were measured in selected brain regions of halothane-anesthetized rats. Initial immunohistochemical measurements of the marker of neural activation, Fos, confirmed that in halothane-anesthetized rats fenfluramine (10 mg/kg i.v.) evoked cellular responses in cortical regions which were attenuated by pre-treatment with the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (300 mg/kg i.p. once daily for 2 days). Fenfluramine-induced Fos was demonstrated in numerous glutamatergic pyramidal neurons (Fos/excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) co-labeled), but also a small number of GABA interneurons (Fos/glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)(67) colabeled). ...
  https://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/publications/131124
*  The effect of a low-calorie diet with and without fenfluramine on the glucose tolerance and insulin secretion of obese maturity...
Glucose tolerance and insulin secretion have been measured in twenty-three obese maturity-onset diabetics (twelve high-insulin secretors and eleven lowor normal-insulin secretors) on first presentation and after 10 weeks on a low-calorie diet. There was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance alone, when the results were compared with those from diabetics not on any form of treatment.. Thereafter nine of these subjects (five high-insulin secretors and four low- or normal-insulin secretors) continued on the dietary therapy alone, and eleven of the remaining fourteen subjects (six high-insulin secretors and five low- or normal-insulin secretors) continued on the low-calorie diet with the addition of fenfluramine, and their glucose tolerance and insulin secretion were measured again after a further 10 weeks. The remaining three subjects were no longer studied. The nine subjects continuing on the diet alone showed maintenance of the improvement in glucose tolerance achieved during the ...
  http://pmj.bmj.com/content/49/571/318
*  Plus it
These studies examined the effect of fenfluramine on insulin action and insulin secretion in healthy subjects and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In the first study, a double-blind crossover design was used in healthy subjects to compare the effect of short-term fenfluramine therapy (60 mg orally for 3 days) with placebo. Insulin secretion and whole-body insulin sensitivity (determined by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests with analysis by the minimal-model method) were unchanged by fenfluramine. In the second study, involving patients with NIDDM inadequately controlled on submaximal to maximal doses of oral hypoglycemic agents, a double-blind crossover strategy was used to compare baseline studies (conducted after a run-in period) with fenfluramine (60 mg orally) or placebo for 4 wk. There was a signficant fall in fasting blood glucose after therapy with fenfluramine ...
  http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/12/4/252
*  Fenfluramine - Drugs.com
Fenfluramine is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Fenfluramine is available on the Drugs.com website.
  https://www.drugs.com/international/fenfluramine.html
*  UCSF Dravet Syndrome Trial: An Open-Label Extension Trial to Assess the Long-Term Safety of ZX008 (Fenfluramine Hydrochloride...
This is an international, multicenter, open-label, long-term safety study of ZX008 in pediatric and young adult subjects with Dravet syndrome who have successfully completed 14 weeks of treatment in one of the core studies (ZX008-1501 and ZX008-1502) and are candidates for continuous treatment for an extended period of time. Subjects will be permitted to participate in the present study after they complete the final evaluation at Day 113 in one of the core studies. This trial will consist of a 12-month Open-Label Extension (OLE) Treatment Period and a 2-week Post-Dosing Period. Thus, subjects who complete this trial will have been treated with ZX0008 for a minimum of up to 1 year (including their participation in both the core study and this study).. ...
  https://clinicaltrials.ucsf.edu/trial/NCT02823145
*  Fenfluramine and amphetamine suppress dietary intake without affecting learned preferences for protein or carbohydrate cues :...
Gibson, E L and Booth, D A (1988) Fenfluramine and amphetamine suppress dietary intake without affecting learned preferences for protein or carbohydrate cues. Behavioural Brain Research, 30 (1). pp. 25-29. ISSN 0166-4328 Full text not available from this repository ...
  http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/57073/
*  Pondimin (Fenfluramine - Removed from US Market): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses
Learn about Pondimin (Fenfluramine - Removed from US Market) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
  https://www.rxlist.com/pondimin-drug.htm
*  Benfluorex / mediator® scandal, or scandals? | The BMJ
Dyer titled in the news section "France to prosecute its drug regulator and Servier in scandal over diabetes drug" (i.e. benfluorex / mediator®).(1). In fact, there are several regulators and one may question why the High Authority for Health (Haute Autorité de Santé, the French health-care watchdog) was not prosecuted. Its Transparency (sic) Committee assesses drugs for reimbursement and pricing to advise the ministry of health. The draft report produced in 2006 for the reassessment of benfluorex by the Committee highlighted on its cover page that benfluorex was (a) a hidden anorexigen misused for slimming; (b) a derivate of the fenfluramine family, withdrawn for pulmonary hypertension and valvular disease; and (c) withdrawn in Spain for these same adverse effects. No warning on the final version of the report approved by the Committee, which recommended reimbursement by the mandatory healthcare.(2) The ministry of health, who had two members of its administration in the committee, renewed ...
  http://www.bmj.com/content/358/bmj.j4231/rr
*  Plus it
The usefulness of fenfluramine (F), in association with diet therapy, was investigated in 13 obese noninsulin- dependent diabetic patients with poor diabetes control on a previous sulfonylurea regimen (SU). A double-blind crossover comparison of F and placebo (P) consisted of two 7-wk treatment periods. F was administered in stepwise increased and subsequently reduced doses, while the doses of SU were kept unchanged. There was a significant weight loss in F-treated obese subjects as compared with treatment by P. The fasting levels, and particularly the postprandial blood glucose (BG) levels, were significantly lower during F than during P administration. Serum fasting insulin and blood lactate concentrations remained unchanged during the trial. Serum triglycerides and cholesterol decreased during F administration. HDL-cholesterol and apoprotein A-I increased slightly, while apoprotein B decreased during F, but not during P administration. The effect of fenfluramine on ...
  http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/4/5/535
*  Plus it
There is evidence that fenfluramine improves insulin action independently of its anorectic and weight-loss-inducing properties. Chronic d-fenfluramine also reduces hypothalamic noradrenergic tone, which correlates highly with hepatic glucose output. We report that chronic d-fenfluramine (5 mg · kg−1 · day−1) ameliorates insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding. Insulin action was assessed in adult male rats at basal insulin levels and at hyperinsulinemia (∼140 mU/L with the euglycemic clamp technique). Hepatic glucose production, peripheral glucose disposal, and individual tissue glucose metabolism were determined from bolus injections of [3 H]-2-deoxyglucose and [14 C]glucose. Food intake was matched between groups. Basal glucose turnover was reduced 28% (P , .05) in fat-fed rats receiving d-fenfluramine (fat+fen). The glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia was 22.0 ± 1.1 mg · kg−1 · min−1 in the high-carbohydrate-fed rats, 8.2 ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/38/4/499
*  Can These Obesity Drug Stocks Bounce Back in 2014? -- The Motley Fool
Here's some good news -- America isn't the most obese nation in the world. The bad news is that America still ranks second behind Mexico, according to a United Nations report last July. About 31.8% of American adults are still classified as obese, compared to 32.8% in Mexico.. At first glance, those ominous numbers hint at a blockbuster market for a new generation of obesity drugs, such as Arena's (NASDAQ:ARNA) Belviq and VIVUS' (NASDAQ:VVUS) Qsymia, the first new obesity drugs approved by the FDA in 13 years.. The FDA has been wary of obesity drugs since the Fen-Phen (fenfluramine/phentermine) disaster in the 1990s, when fenfluramine, an appetite suppressor, was implicated in heart valve disease, pulmonary hypertension, and cardiac fibrosis. Fenfluramine was withdrawn from the U.S. market in 1997.. Therefore, peak sales estimates were high when Arena (NASDAQ:ARNA) and Eisai (NASDAQOTH:ESALY) launched Belviq in June 2013, ...
  https://www.fool.com/investing/general/2014/02/12/can-these-obesity-drug-stocks-bounce-back-in-2014.aspx
*  Rival obesity drugs seek out patients, and acceptance
Weight-loss aids have been around for generations, and in the 1950s, amphetamines became the rage because they sped up metabolism and produced weight loss. They also caused heart problems and created addicts.. In 1973, the FDA-approved drug fenfluramine was introduced in the United States and sold under the brand names Pondimin, Ponderax and Adifax. The drug increased the level of serotonin, a feel-good chemical in the body, producing a sensation of fullness. The initial problem was the effects didn't last. In the 1990s, the drug company American Home Products (which later became Wyeth) combined fenfluramine with phentermine, an appetite suppressant, and a new product, fen-phen, was born.. Fen-phen was the hot weight-loss drug of the day, and thousands of people shed pounds with it. But gradually, reports started coming in about elevated hypertension readings, then damage to heart valves. In a much-publicized case, Mary J. Linnen, 30, of Quincy, Mass., ...
  http://www.ocregister.com/2013/06/20/rival-obesity-drugs-seek-out-patients-and-acceptance/
*  Mice overexpressing the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter show no alterations in feeding behaviour and increased non-feeding...
RATIONALE: The 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) is implicated in the regulation of appetite. Expression of the 5-HTT varies in the human population, and this variation may determine both individual differences in feeding and abnormal feeding behaviours such as eating disorders. OBJECTIVES: The effects of 5-HTT expression on feeding and satiety were examined in a transgenic mouse model of 5-HTT overexpression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured free-feeding food intake and observed the behavioural satiety sequence (BSS) after food deprivation in mice at baseline and after administration of the anorectic drug fenfluramine. RESULTS: 5-HTT overexpressing mice were both lighter and shorter than their wildtype littermates. Despite this size difference, food intake by transgenic and wildtype mice did not differ. There was no effect of genotype on the BSS or on food intake during the test at baseline. Increasing doses of fenfluramine reduced food intake in a similar manner in both ...
  https://www.psy.ox.ac.uk/publications/17637
*  The effects of acute ethanol feeding and of chronic benfluorex administration on the activities of some enzymes of glycerolipid...
Rats were treated for 5 days with benfluorex [1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-2-[N-(2-benzoyloxyethyl)amino]propane] or with suspending medium (controls). They were then intubated with an acute intoxicating dose of ethanol or with glucose of equivalent energy content. Treatment of the control rats with ethanol specifically increases the hepatic activity of the soluble phosphatidate phosphohydrolase by about 5-fold in 6 h. The equivalent increase for the benfluorex-treated rats were about 2-fold. The results are discussed in relation to the effects of ethanol and benfluorex on glycerolipid synthesis. ...
  http://www.biochemj.org/content/166/3/639
*  THE EFFECTS OF DIETING ON D-FENFLURAMINE INDUCED PROLACTIN RESPONSE - Department of Psychiatry
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  https://www.psych.ox.ac.uk/publications/186020
*  Commentary: You Can Observe a Lot (About Medical Products)... : Epidemiology
Over the last three decades, 26 prescription drugs (3.5% of all those approved in this period) have been withdrawn from the US market for safety reasons.1 On average, these drugs were withdrawn 6 years after their approval and, often, after many millions of people had been exposed. Terfenadine, an antihistamine linked to ventricular arrhythmias, was withdrawn from the US market in 1990 after an estimated 100 million people were exposed worldwide.2 In 1996, ,18 million prescriptions were dispensed in the United States for the weight-loss drug fenfluramine. The next year, fenfluramine was withdrawn from the market for causing heart valve damage.3. Today, data on hundreds of millions of patients who use prescription medications and other medical products are routinely collected in electronic healthcare databases. These data typically include adjudicated insurance claims for prescription drugs dispensed at pharmacies and ...
  http://journals.lww.com/epidem/Fulltext/2013/09000/Commentary___You_Can_Observe_a_Lot__About_Medical.10.aspx
*  Plus it
Mutations in a voltage-gated sodium channel (SCN1A) result in Dravet Syndrome (DS), a catastrophic childhood epilepsy. Zebrafish with a mutation in scn1Lab recapitulate salient phenotypes associated with DS including seizures, early fatality and resistance to antiepileptic drugs. To discover new drug candidates for DS, we screened a chemical library of ∼1,000 compounds and identified four compounds that rescued the behavioral seizure component, including one compound (dimethadione) that suppressed associated electrographic seizure activity. Fenfluramine, but not Huperzine A, also showed antiepileptic activity in our zebrafish assays. The effectiveness of compounds that block neuronal calcium current (dimethadione) or enhance serotonin signaling (fenfluramine) in our zebrafish model suggests these may be important therapeutic targets in patients with DS. Over 150 compounds resulting in fatality were also identified. We conclude that the combination of behavioral and ...
  http://www.eneuro.org/content/early/2015/08/20/ENEURO.0068-15.2015
*  Fenfluramine damage to the brain and mind | Psychiatric Drug Facts
RECENT FDA DECISION HIGHLIGHTS ETHICAL ISSUES IN DRUG RESEARCH ON CHILDREN by Peter R. Breggin, M.D. April 21, 1998 The FDA has put the interests of drug
  https://breggin.com/fenfluramine-damage-to-the-brain-and-mind/
*  Is the weight loss however
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