*  Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy on Helminth
Helminths (/ˈhɛlmɪnθs/), also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular organisms, which when mature can generally be seen with the naked eye. They are often referred to as intestinal worms even though not all helminths reside in the intestines; for example schistosomes are not intestinal worms, but rather reside in blood vessels.. There is no clear consensus on the taxonomy of helminths; it is more of a commonly used term to describe certain worms with superficial similarities. These are flatworms (platyhelminthes), namely cestodes (tapeworms) and trematodes (flukes), and roundworms or nemathelminths (nematodes) - both of these are parasitic worm types - and the annelida, which are not parasitic or at the most ectoparasites like the leeches.[1]. Many, but not all, of the worms referred to as helminths belong to the group of intestinal parasites. An infection by a helminth is known as helminthiasis, ...
  http://hitchhikersgui.de/Helminth
*  The Impact of Asymptomatic Helminth Co-Infection in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis in North-West Ethiopia
The geographic distribution of helminth infection and tuberculosis (TB) overlap substantially. Experimental animal models and limited data from humans have shown that intestinal helminths could subvert the host immune response towards a T-helper 2 (Th2)-type immune response and an increased regulatory T-cell activity (Tregs). This in turn affects the host's ability to mount an effective Th1 immune-mediated protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, evidence for this hypothesis in the human setting from helminth infected TB patients is limited. This thesis primarily focuses on the immunological and clinical impact of helminth infection on pulmonary TB. The kinetics of the Quantiferon-Gold (QFN) assay, which measures IFN-³ response to TB-specific antigens in whole blood was assessed and showed a modest decline during TB treatment to the level observed for healthy blood donors. We further assessed another clinical monitoring tool, the-TB-score, composed of clinical signs and ...
  http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:558783
*  The Impact of Asymptomatic Helminth Co-Infection in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis in North-West Ethiopia
The geographic distribution of helminth infection and tuberculosis (TB) overlap substantially. Experimental animal models and limited data from humans have shown that intestinal helminths could subvert the host immune response towards a T-helper 2 (Th2)-type immune response and an increased regulatory T-cell activity (Tregs). This in turn affects the host's ability to mount an effective Th1 immune-mediated protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, evidence for this hypothesis in the human setting from helminth infected TB patients is limited. This thesis primarily focuses on the immunological and clinical impact of helminth infection on pulmonary TB. The kinetics of the Quantiferon-Gold (QFN) assay, which measures IFN-³ response to TB-specific antigens in whole blood was assessed and showed a modest decline during TB treatment to the level observed for healthy blood donors. We further assessed another clinical monitoring tool, the-TB-score, composed of clinical signs and ...
  http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?dswid=-3846&pid=diva2%3A558783&c=22&searchType=SIMPLE&language=en&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22organisationId%22%3A%221800%22%7D%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all
*  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Epidemiology of Soil-Transmitted Helminth and Intestinal Protozoan...
Abstract Intestinal parasites are important contributors to global morbidity and mortality and are the second most common cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. This cross-sectional survey describes the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa in preschool children 0-5 years of age in seven communities in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and investigates associations between infection, household water and sanitation characteristics, and child growth. Stool samples were collected from children 0-5 years of age, 1 g of sample was preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and examined for intestinal helminth eggs and protozoa cysts ether-concentration method. A total of 212 samples were collected from 255 randomly selected children. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm were 10.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.6-15.1), 1.4% (95% CI = 0-3.0), and 0% (95% CI = 0-1.7), respectively. The prevalence of the pathogenic intestinal ...
  http://ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0800
*  PLOS Pathogens: Targeted mutagenesis in a human-parasitic nematode
Author summary Parasitic worms are a widespread public health burden, yet very little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to their parasitic lifestyle. One of the major barriers to better understanding these mechanisms is that there are currently no available methods for making targeted gene knockouts in any parasitic worm species. Here, we describe the first mutant phenotype in a parasitic worm resulting from a targeted gene disruption. We applied CRISPR-Cas9-mediated mutagenesis to parasitic worms in the genus Strongyloides and developed a method that overcomes many of the challenges that have previously inhibited generating mutant parasitic worms. We characterize heritable mutant phenotypes and outline a toolkit that will be applicable to many other genes with potential roles in parasitism. Importantly, we developed our method for gene knockouts in a human-parasitic worm. By directly investigating the genes and molecular pathways that enable worms to parasitize humans
  http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article/figure?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1006675.g003
*  Detecting and enumerating soil-transmitted helminth eggs in soil: New method development and results from field testing in...
Author summary Intestinal worm infections are common in populations living in tropical, low-income countries. People primarily become infected when they consume intestinal worm eggs from contaminated water, hands, and food. Intestinal worm eggs are transmitted from infected people and spread through the environment, particularly via soil. There is no standard laboratory method for counting intestinal worm eggs in soil, which is a major barrier to comprehensive research on the transmission of infection. We tested different laboratory protocol steps to extract soil-transmitted helminth eggs, which is one type of intestinal worm, from soil and propose a new, fast, and efficient field method. We tested the method in Kenya and Bangladesh and found that soil contamination with helminth eggs was prevalent in both study areas. We propose that environmental contamination be included in discussions about intestinal worm transmission, control, and elimination, especially in areas with low infection prevalence. The
  http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0005522
*  Treatment of Helminth co-Infection: Short-Term Effects on HIV-1 Progression Markers and Immune Activation - Full Text View -...
Identifying methods to slow disease progression in patients with HIV-1 infection remains a top priority in many regions of the world. In many countries, medications known to slow progression are not readily affordable or available. Many of the individuals living in these countries are also co-infected with a variety of other diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria and soil-transmitted helminths. There are data to suggest that infection with these agents may activate the immune system in HIV-1 co-infected individuals and may lead to more rapid HIV disease progression. This study will evaluate the potential impact of treating helminths in HIV-1 seropositive individuals. Markers of disease progression and immune activation will be assessed. We will also measure the amount of virus in genital secretions to determine if treatment of co-infection can reduce the infectiousness of HIV in these individuals ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00130910
*  Treatment of Helminth co-Infection: Short-Term Effects on HIV-1 Progression Markers and Immune Activation - Full Text View -...
Identifying methods to slow disease progression in patients with HIV-1 infection remains a top priority in many regions of the world. In many countries, medications known to slow progression are not readily affordable or available. Many of the individuals living in these countries are also co-infected with a variety of other diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria and soil-transmitted helminths. There are data to suggest that infection with these agents may activate the immune system in HIV-1 co-infected individuals and may lead to more rapid HIV disease progression. This study will evaluate the potential impact of treating helminths in HIV-1 seropositive individuals. Markers of disease progression and immune activation will be assessed. We will also measure the amount of virus in genital secretions to determine if treatment of co-infection can reduce the infectiousness of HIV in these individuals ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00130910?order=251
*  Treatment of Helminth co-Infection: Short-Term Effects on HIV-1 Progression Markers and Immune Activation - Full Text View -...
Identifying methods to slow disease progression in patients with HIV-1 infection remains a top priority in many regions of the world. In many countries, medications known to slow progression are not readily affordable or available. Many of the individuals living in these countries are also co-infected with a variety of other diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria and soil-transmitted helminths. There are data to suggest that infection with these agents may activate the immune system in HIV-1 co-infected individuals and may lead to more rapid HIV disease progression. This study will evaluate the potential impact of treating helminths in HIV-1 seropositive individuals. Markers of disease progression and immune activation will be assessed. We will also measure the amount of virus in genital secretions to determine if treatment of co-infection can reduce the infectiousness of HIV in these individuals ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00130910?order=267
*  British Library EThOS: The population biology of multispecies helminth infection
Vertebrate hosts are frequently infected with multiple helminth species. There is a body of experimental evidence to suggest that infection with one parasite species can have either an antagonistic or synergistic effect on another species such interactions may occur through parasite establishment, survival and fecundity. The extent to which such interactions are involved in the organization of helminth communities is largely unknown. Mathematical models based on Markov processes are used to explore two themes: 1) The effect of interspecific interactions on the joint distribution of helminth par asites in a population of hosts, and 2) conditions under which interacting species can coexist. To explore the former, models are formulated that describe the pro cess by which helminths of two species are acquired and lost in a cohort of ageing hosts. In these models, the interspecific interaction occurs at the point of parasite establishment within the host such that the rate of establishment ...
  http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.433904
*  Helminth synonyms, helminth antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com
Synonyms for helminth in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for helminth. 1 synonym for helminth: parasitic worm. What are synonyms for helminth?
  https://www.freethesaurus.com/helminth
*  Can Presumptive Anthelminthic Treatment Delay the Progression of HIV in ART-naïve Patients in Rural Africa? - Full Text View -...
Background: On the basis of immunological considerations and in vitro trials on co-infections there is strong reason to suspect a detrimental effect of helminth infection on the course of HIV. The immunological answer very efficiently evoked by helminth infection is aimed at hijacking and suppressing the immune system in order to suit the requirements of the specific helminth. This permits helminths to cause chronic infection, often persisting over years and allowing some infecting worms to grow to several centimetres of length within their host. However, this immune modulation also affects non-related antigens (for example HIV) which would actually require a different line of immunological action.. Some clinical trials have been able to confirm this detrimental effect of helminths on HIV infection, while other trials failed to do so. A recent Cochrane review on clinical trials with HIV and helminth co-infection found an overall slight reduction of HIV viral load if helminth ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/nct00817713
*  Adirondack Musing : Parasitic Worms: An Introduction
Parasitic worms also have different types of life cycles. Those with a direct life cycle have only a single host. Those with an indirect life cycle utilize more than one host to complete their life cycle. In either case, the host in which sexual reproduction of the worm takes place is called the definitive host. Hosts in which development, growth or asexual reproduction takes place are called the intermediate host. Host to host transmission occurs via eggs or larvae. Eggs are usually ingested while larvae may be ingested or they can penetrate the skin ...
  http://pudsandlosers.blogspot.com/2007/12/parasitic-worms-introduction.html
*  Parasitic Worms Could Be Used To Treat Bowel Disease
Researcher Linda Mansfield Michigan State University is a part of a national team of scientists engaged in looking at the role of parasitic worms in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
  http://www.medindia.net/news/view_news_main.asp?x=10707
*  Parasitic Worms May Restore Balance To Gut Microbiome In People With Crohn's Disease
A new animal study suggests that parasitic worm infestations may be able to restore balance to the erratic gut microbiomes of people with Crohn's Disease.
  http://www.medicaldaily.com/gut-microbiome-parasitic-worms-crohns-disease-381987
*  Parasitic Worms May Restore Balance To Gut Microbiome In People With Crohn's Disease
A new animal study suggests that parasitic worm infestations may be able to restore balance to the erratic gut microbiomes of people with Crohn's Disease.
  http://www.medicaldaily.com/gut-microbiome-parasitic-worms-crohns-disease-381987?utm_source=internal&utm_campaign=right&utm_medium=related1
*  Parasitic Worms - 4 Nastiest in the World
Disgusting & terrifying parasitic worms in humans! These parasites can infect your stomach, stool, brain, & other body parts that...
  http://theywillkillyou.com/video/parasitic-worms-nastiest-world/
*  Human fertilizer spreads parasitic worms in Vietnam: expert | Health | Thanh Nien Daily
Nearly half of the people in the Red River Delta are infected with parasitic worms due to the habit of using human excrements as fertilizer for crops, according to a new survey.
  http://www.thanhniennews.com/health/human-fertilizer-spreads-parasitic-worms-in-vietnam-expert-27268.html
*  Comment] No more neglect of helminths and HIV - doctorportal | doctorportal
Helminths are parasitic worms that disproportionately affect the world's poorest people and cause chronic disease in a quarter of the global population.1 Helminth infections, such as lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, and intestinal nematodiases, are classified by WHO as neglected tropical diseases.2 For years, these neglected tropical diseases have received minimal global attention and less than 1% of global research funding.3. ...
  https://www.doctorportal.com.au/comment-no-more-neglect-of-helminths-and-hiv/
*  What are Helminths?
Helminths are parasitic worms that cause a wide variety of infectious diseases, some of which involve the musculoskeletal system. Helminths may be classified into nematodes or roundworms, trematodes or flatworms, and cestodes or tapeworms.
  https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-are-Helminths.aspx
*  DNDi Expands Activities To Neglected Patient Needs In The Field Of Helminth Infections - Redorbit
Today at the Neglected Tropical Diseases Meeting of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (ISID-NTD) in Boston, the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) announced the first research and development project in its new helminth infection drug portfolio to address unmet needs of patients in Africa and Asia.. The project will assess the potential of the drug flubendazole to treat a highly neglected subset of helminth infections, notably co-infection of two of the three filarial diseases: onchocerciasis (river blindness) and lymphatic filariasis (LF; elephantiasis), in co-infection with loiasis (African eyeworm or Loa loa). Existing treatments are inadequate and in some cases life-threatening.. The project is supported by a grant from The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.. While remaining fully committed to kinetoplastid diseases (sleeping sickness, leishmaniases, and Chagas disease) DNDi is expanding its drug portfolio to include helminth infections, focusing specifically on ...
  http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/2076160/dndi_expands_activities_to_neglected_patient_needs_in_the_field/
*  Controlling parasitic worms with genetic selection | Feedstuffs
One such strategy is genetic selection. Certain breeds of sheep are more immune to helminths than other breeds, and a breeding program that aims to pass on this resistance trait could help control the disease and ultimately limit production losses attributed to helminth infection.. A key advantage to applying genetic selection rather than chemicals to get rid of the worms is that it is permanent and could help reduce the potential risk of chemical residues in products made for human consumption, the study's lead author Niel Karrow said. "With today's developments in genomic selection, breeding sheep for helminth resistance can be achieved efficiently, without adversely affecting other economically important traits," explained Karrow, a researcher at the Centre for Genetic Improvement of Livestock at the University of Guelph. "We believe that breeding for helminth resistance, when combined with good biosecurity and pasture management practices, will greatly help to control against production ...
  http://www.feedstuffs.com/story-controlling-parasitic-worms-with-genetic-selection-52-106586
*  The influence of different helminth infection phenotypes on immune responses against HIV in co-infected adults in South Africa.
Abstract Background The convergent distribution of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and helminth infections has led to the suggestion that infection with helminths exacerbates the HIV epidemic in developing countries. In South Africa, it is estimated that 57% of the population lives in poverty and carries the highest burden of both HIV and helmith infections, however, the disease interactions are under-researched. Methods We employed both coproscopy and Ascaris lumbricoides-specific serum IgE to increase diagnostic sensitivity and to distinguish between different helminth infection phenotypes and their effects on immune responses in HIV co-infected individuals. Coproscopy was done by formol ether and Kato Katz methods. HIV positive and negative adults were stratified according to the presence or absence of A. lumbricoides and/or Trichuris trichuria eggs with or without elevated Ascaris IgE. Lymphocyte subsets were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Viral loads, serum total IgE and ...
  http://scholar.sun.ac.za/handle/10019.1/18173
*  Analyse auf helminth Eier als Pass
How would you like a stronger immune system or better sleep? Action between the sheets can help you get all of this and more. Red, itchy, and scaly skin? Discover common skin conditions like psoriasis, rashes, and more in the collection of medical photos. Lose weight without dieting! Live better and be healthier with these quick nutritional tips from the experts. Slideshow Dental Oral Health Quiz Causes of a Heart Attack Slideshow Helminth: A worm classified as a parasite.. A parasite is a disease-causing organism that lives on or in a human or another animal and derives its nourishment from its host. Lice are examples of parasites that live on humans; bacteria and viruses are examples of parasites that live either on humans or in humans; helminths are examples of parasites that live in humans. Helminth eggs contaminate food, water, air, feces, pets and wild animals, and objects such as toilet seats and door handles. The eggs enter the body of a human through the mouth, the nose and the ...
  http://textyourexbackreviews.co/analyse-auf-helminth-eier-als-pass.php