*  Thiamine deficiency - Wikipedia
... deficiencies in this vitamin do not occur with commercial diets. This was, at least, the opinion in the 1960s.[63] ... Thiamine deficiency is a medical condition of low levels of thiamine (vitamin B1).[1] A severe and chronic form is known as ... TRMA patients do not show signs of systemic thiamine deficiency, suggesting redundancy in the thiamine transport system. This ... The inefficient utilization of any thiamine that does reach the cells will further exacerbate the thiamine deficiency. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beriberi
*  Thiamine deficiency - Wikipedia
doi:10.1007/s13149-011-0136-6. Prinzo, Z. Weise; de Benoist, B. (2009). "Meeting the challenges of micronutrient deficiencies ... thiamine deficiency can be excluded. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) is the most common thiamine deficiency disorder in young ... Thiamine deficiency, also known as beriberi, is a condition that occurs due to not enough thiamine (vitamin B1). There are two ... Additionally thiamine may also be directly involved in neuromodulation. A positive diagnosis test for thiamine deficiency can ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thiamine_deficiency
*  Beriberi (Vitamin B1 Thiamine Deficiency) | Healthhype.com
... should be encouraged to eat a wide range of foods to prevent other deficiencies rather than focusing solely on thiamine. ... Home » Current Health Articles » Beriberi (Vitamin B1 Thiamine Deficiency). Beriberi (Vitamin B1 Thiamine Deficiency). Posted ... Functions of Thiamine. Thiamine pyrophosphate is the biologically active form of thiamine. It has a wide variety of functions ... loss of thiamine from the body. The human body has a pool of about 30mg of thiamine and it takes about a month to exhaust these ...
  http://www.healthhype.com/beriberi-vitamin-b1-thiamine-deficiency.html
*  Thiamine deficiency Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - RightDiagnosis.com
Thiamine deficiency information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums ... Chronic fatigue, vitamin deficiencies, yet NO help from any doctors. *Which B Vitamin deficiency makes me weepy? ... Contents for Thiamine deficiency: *Thiamine deficiency *What is Thiamine deficiency? *Causes of Thiamine deficiency *Risk ... Symptoms of Thiamine deficiency *Signs of Thiamine deficiency *Misdiagnosis of Thiamine deficiency *Undiagnosed Thiamine ...
  http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/t/thiamine_deficiency/
*  Thiamine Deficiency as a Model of Selective Neurodegeneration with Chronic Oxidative Deficits | Springer for Research &...
Experimental thiamine deficiency is a classical model of the molecular changes that underlie the clinical syndrome referred to ... and vitamin and nutritional deficiencies (e.g. thiamine deficiency). Despite the varied etiology, the diverse insults that lead ... J.F. Giguere and R.F. Butterworth, Activities of thiamine-dependent enzymes in two experimental models of thiamine deficiency ... Activities of thiamine-dependent enzymes in two experimental models of thiamine deficiency encephalopathy. 2. α-ketoglutarate ...
  https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4899-0209-2_25
*  Thiamine Deficiency | CTD
Thiamine , Deficiency, Thiamine , Thiamine Deficiencies Definition A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE ... thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine ... Thiamine Deficiency Synonyms Deficiencies, ... Deficiency Diseases ← Avitaminosis ← Vitamin B Deficiency ← ...
  http://ctdbase.org/detail.go?type=disease&acc=MESH%3AD013832
*  ICD-10 Diagnosis Code E51 Thiamine deficiency
Short Description: Thiamine deficiency Long Description: Thiamine deficiency This is the 2018 version of the ICD-10-CM ... Other nutritional deficiencies (E50-E64). *Thiamine deficiency (E51). *E51 - Thiamine deficiency. Diagnosis Code E51. ...
  https://icdlist.com/icd-10/e51
*  Most recent papers with the keyword Thiamin deficiency and brain disorders | Read by QxMD
... and pterin deficiencies, and vitamin defects (folate, vitamin B6, and thiamine) that affect the brain. The analysis of several ... Thiamin deficiency occurs during pregnancy when dietary intake is inadequate or excessive alcohol is consumed. Thiamin ... thiamine deficiency caused by pyrithiamine treatment, and nonspecific nutritional deficiency caused by food deprivation. ... Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) plays a major role in the etiology of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) which is a severe ...
  https://www.readbyqxmd.com/keyword/69872
*  Beriberi video: Thiamine Deficiency, Beriberi. Dry Beriberi VS Wet Beriberi
Thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiencies are primarily seen in alcoholic patients. This scenario... ... Thiamine Deficiency, Beriberi. Dry Beriberi VS Wet Beriberi. Thiamine Deficiency, Beriberi. Dry Beriberi VS Wet Beriberi. ... Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Deficiency - USMLE Biochemistry Vitamins Case Based Discussion. Thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin found ... This video has been updated on behalf of Debra Coats who has been working with Beriberi disease and thiamine deficiency in ...
  http://beriberi.purzuit.com/video/Cj1_5CkPTM4.html
*  Bryan McLeod | Thiamine deficiency in livestock on New Zealand and Australian pastoral grazing properties
Copper and cobalt deficiencies · The enzyme Thiaminase will remain active in the rumen even after you have removed the problem ... Tags: Thiamine deficiency, New zealand Australia thiamine, thiamine def sheep, thiamine def cattle, thiamine dairy, rotting ... Question: Farmer with lambs showing thiamine deficiency - "Is the low rumen pH the cause of the problem" ... Thiamine deficiency in livestock on New Zealand and Australian pastoral grazing properties June 22, 2015. /0 Comments/in Animal ...
  http://bryanlmcleod.com/thiamine-deficiency-in-livestock-on-new-zealand-and-australian-pastoral-grazing-properties/
*  Retrograde Amnesia: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine deficiency, which is typically caused by chronic alcohol misuse or serious malnutrition, can lead ... blood tests to check for nutritional deficiencies and infections. *a neurological examination ... Learn the symptoms of a vitamin B deficiency.. Encephalitis. Encephalitis is inflammation in the brain caused by a viral ...
  https://www.healthline.com/health/retrograde-amnesia
*  B vitamins - Wikipedia
Leevy, Carroll M. (1982). "Thiamin deficiency and alcoholism". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 378 (Thiamin: Twenty ... Deficiencies of other B vitamins result in symptoms that are not part of a named deficiency disease. Because water-soluble B ... Hoyumpa Jr, AM (1980). "Mechanisms of thiamin deficiency in chronic alcoholism". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 33 (12 ... 1998). "Chapter 4 - Thiamin" (PDF). Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12 ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B_vitamins
*  Long-term effects of alcohol consumption - Wikipedia
Martin PR, Singleton CK, Hiller-Sturmhöfel S (2003). "The role of thiamine deficiency in alcoholic brain disease". Alcohol Res ... However, liver disease and certain genetic enzyme deficiencies result in high acetaldehyde levels. Heavy drinkers who are ... Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a manifestation of thiamine deficiency, usually as a secondary effect of alcohol abuse. The ... as well as thiamin deficiency. It is possible in some cases that alcohol abuse via a kindling mechanism can cause the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long-term_effects_of_alcohol_consumption
*  Marchiafava-Bignami disease - Wikipedia
It is believed that he had protein, folic acid, and thiamine deficiencies, which are what caused the demyelination of the ... Alcoholism can also cause thiamine deficiency, which is also observed to cause MBD. Individuals with MBD usually have a history ... The mechanism of the disease is not completely understood, but it is believed to be caused by a Vitamin B deficiency, ... Some treatments include Therapy with thiamine and vitamin B complex. Alcohol consumption should be stopped. Some patients ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marchiafava%E2%80%93Bignami_disease
*  Korsakoff's syndrome - Wikipedia
... causes thiamine deficiency. Other causes include dietary deficiencies, prolonged vomiting, eating disorders, and the effects of ... Thiamine is essential for the decarboxylation of pyruvate, and deficiency during this metabolic process is thought to cause ... Conditions resulting in thiamine deficiency and its effects include chronic alcoholism and severe malnutrition. Alcoholism may ... The most effective method of preventing Korsakoff's syndrome is to avoid B vitamin/thiamine deficiency. In Western nations, the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korsakoff's_syndrome
*  Hypomagnesemia - Wikipedia
Also, hypomagnesemia is related to thiamine deficiency because magnesium is needed for transforming thiamine into thiamine ... Deficiencies may be due to the following conditions: Alcoholism. Hypomagnesemia occurs in 30% of alcohol abusers and in 85% of ... Magnesium deficiency is not uncommon in hospitalized patients. Elevated levels of magnesium (hypermagnesemia), however, are ... In the acute phase of magnesium deficiency there is an increase in absorption in the distal small intestine and tubular ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypomagnesemia
*  Alcoholic polyneuropathy - Wikipedia
Thiamine deficiency alone could explain the impaired nerve conduction in those with alcoholic polyneuropathy, but other factors ... Alcoholic polyneuropathy is caused primarily by chronic alcoholism; however, vitamin deficiencies are also known to contribute ... Depending on the specific dietary habits, they may have a deficiency of one or more of the following: thiamine (vitamin B1), ... In severe cases of thiamine deficiency, a few of the positive symptoms (including neuropathic pain) may persist indefinitely. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcoholic_polyneuropathy
*  Mercury regulation in the United States - Wikipedia
Other nutrients such as thiamine deficiency at the general population demonstrates an aggravation of the mercury exposure ... Other deficiencies that are observed with a persisting mercury intake are vitamin E, vitamin B12 and vitamin C. Long term ... Some of the most common deficiency observed with chronic mercury intake is a selenium deficiency. Such deficiency might impact ... Similar to thiamine, Iron aggravates mercury exposure effect while ascorbic acid will help reduce the mercury toxicity effect. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury_regulation_in_the_United_States
*  Gastric bypass surgery - Wikipedia
Deficiency of thiamine (also known as vitamin B1) brings the risk of permanent neurological damage (i.e. Wernicke's ... Vitamin A deficiencies generally occur as a result of fat-soluble vitamins deficiencies. This often comes after intestinal ... Signs of thiamin deficiency are heart failure, memory loss, numbness of the hands, constipation, and loss of appetite. Vitamin ... This deficiency in the patient's iron levels may have led to the increase Pica activity. The patient was then given iron ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastric_bypass_surgery
*  Prevalence of Clinical Thiamine Deficiency in Individuals with Medically Complicated Obesity - Emerson Ecologics Blog
By Alan Gaby, MD. Author: Nath A, et al. Reference: Prevalence of clinical thiamine deficiency in individuals with medically complicated obesity. Nutr Res 2017;37:29-36.. Design: Clinical and laboratory evaluation.. Participants: Four hundred consecutive obese patients (mean age, 45 years; mean body mass index, 48.8 kg/m2) who were seen at a bariatric clinic. Patients with heavy alcohol consumption and those who had had bariatric surgery were excluded.. Study Medication and Dosage: Individuals with symptoms suggestive of thiamine deficiency were offered oral (100 mg twice a day) or intramuscular (200 mg; frequency not clear) thiamine. Individuals who reported symptomatic improvement at their follow-up visit 1-2 months later continued oral (100 mg twice a day) or intramuscular (200 mg once a month) thiamine.. Primary Outcome Measure: ...
  http://blog.emersonecologics.com/2017/06/22/prevalence-of-clinical-thiamine-deficiency-in-individuals-with-medically-complicated-obesity/
*  Thiamine Deficiency In Wernicke-korsakoff Syndrome Food Containing - eviticlimate order
FREE Delivery in the UK on orders over 20. Joe Carter is Web Editor of First Things. Thiamine Deficiency In Wernicke-korsakoff Syndrome Food Containing Thiamine Deficiency In Wernicke-korsakoff Syndrome Food Containing the side effects of antibiotics can include diarrhoea nausea & vomiting thrush & allergic reactions.. How could you be reading this right now? Isn't there a meeting you should be in? Vitamin B3 (Niacin) helps the body utilize proteins fats and carbohydrates for energy and also supports nerve and skin health. How to do a Vitamin C (Ascorbate) Flush Use only Beyond Health Vitamin C Buffered Powder a 100% l-ascorbate fully reduced buffered mineral ascorbate form of Niacin is a drug that is often recommended for those with high cholesterol with the added benefit of protecting against heart attacks. Vitamin B12 deficiency is especially common among vegetarians and vegans bu it's ...
  http://www.eviticlimate.eu/evit-1790/thiamine-deficiency-in-wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome-food-containing/
*  Thiamine deficiency - Biology-Online Dictionary
Home » Thiamine deficiency. thiamine deficiency A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of thiamine in the diet, characterised by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the united states most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, beriberi prevalence is very high. ...
  http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Thiamine_deficiency
*  Thiamine Food Sources | Benefits of Thiamine Supplements and Diet
Thiamine deficiency in its early stage induces anorexia, irritability, apathy, and generalized weakness. Prolonged thiamine deficiency causes beriberi, which is classically categorized as wet or dry, although there is considerable overlap. In either form of beriberi, patients may complain of pain and parathesia. Wet beriberi presents primarily with cardiovascular symptoms, due to impaired myocardial energy metabolism and dysautonomia, and can occur after 3 months of a thiamine-deficient diet. Patients present with an enlarged heart, tachycardia, high-output congestive heart failure, peripheral edema, and peripheral neuritis. Patients with dry beriberi present with a symmetric peripheral neuropathy of the motor and sensory systems with diminished reflexes. The neuropathy affects the legs most markedly, and patients have difficulty rising from a squatting position.. Alcoholic ...
  http://online-vitamins-guide.com/vitamins/thiamine.htm
*  A Study of the Cardiac Stigmata in Prolonged Human Thiamine Deficiency | Circulation
Eight clinically proved cases of prolonged thiamine deficiency were evaluated by routine pathologic study. The microscopic features were evaluated by comparison with sections of myocardium obtained from normal individuals and individuals suffering from cardiac diseases of other varieties. No specific transitory or permanent alterations were demonstrable. It is concluded that beriberi heart disease is largely the result of a reversible biochemical abnormality and is not characterized by specific pathologic lesions.. ...
  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/21/1/4
*  Sabinet | Encephalopathy caused by thiamine deficiency : correspondence
To the Editor: Antel et al. have drawn attention to the acute encephalopathy caused by thiamine deficiency in non-alcohol-related settings. I would like to highlight a different clinical presentation that ought to be readily recognised as a possible manifestation of this deficiency, namely rapidly progressive leg weakness, by briefly describing a woman currently under our care at the Neurology Division, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.
  http://journals.co.za/content/m_samj/105/7/EJC172746
*  "Thiamin deficiency in people with obesity" by Jennifer C. Kerns, Cherinne Arundel et al.
Kerns, J.C., Arundel, C., Chawla, L.S. (2015) Thiamin Deficiency in People with Obesity. Advances in Nutrition 6(2): 147-153. http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/an.114.007526. ...
  http://hsrc.himmelfarb.gwu.edu/smhs_medicine_facpubs/552/
*  "Thiamin deficiency in people with obesity." by Jennifer C Kerns, Cherinne Arundel et al.
Kerns, J., Arundel, C., & Chawla, L. S. (2015). Thiamin deficiency in people with obesity.. Advances in Nutrition, 6 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/an.114.007526 ...
  http://hsrc.himmelfarb.gwu.edu/smhs_medicine_facpubs/820/
*  Medicine Watch: Thiamine deficiency linked to vascular disease
Many people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have to deal with vascular problems. Just ask my brother. A type 1 for over 30 years, he has diabetic retinopathy and had a stroke in his late 30s. Microvascular complications can cause kidney disease, vision disorders and neuropathy, while macrovascular complications can cause heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Researchers at the University of Warwick have definitively shown diabetics are deficient in thiamine (vitamin B1), and the deficiency is connected to vascular complications associated with the disease. The research team found thiamine concentration in blood plasma was decreased 76 percent in type 1s and 75 percent in type 2s. Why is this only being discovered now? Previously, conventional assessment of thiamine levels involved measuring the activity of an enzyme (transketolase) in red blood cells. Past research observed ...
  http://medicinewatch.blogspot.com/2007/08/thiamine-deficiency-linked-to-vascular.html
*  Sulfur Toxicity | College of Veterinary Medicine
Polio in Cattle can be Caused by Sulfur Toxicity. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) was first reported in 1956 and was described as a neurologic disorder of cattle characterized by blindness, ataxia, recumbancy and seizures. The micropathologic description was a laminar cortical necrosis. This description of PEM is still accurate 50 years later, but several additional causes have been identified. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle was thought at one time to be caused exclusively by a thiamine deficiency. The deficiency was thought to develop because the rumen did not produce enough thiamine or products such as amprolium inhibited thiamine production. Some of the confusion surrounding the cause of PEM is because there is no method to accurately evaluate thiamine status in animals. It is now known that the laminar cortical necrosis observed in the ...
  https://www.vetmed.iastate.edu/vdpam/research/disease-topics/toxicology/sulfur-toxicity
*  What Is Biochemistry - Thiamine Deficiency - Medicalrealm
Thiamine or vitamin B1 is useful by acting as precursor for TPP. TPP is a form of coenzyme for enzymes such as transketolase in phosphate pathway, alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in citric acid cycle, pyruvate dehydrogenase in glycolysis and branched
  http://www.medicalrealm.net/what-is-biochemistry---thiamine-deficiency.html
*  thiamin (vitamin B1) | Reference Library - Supplements | Supplements | Healthways, Inc.
As the first B vitamin to be discovered, thiamin can rightly claim the name of vitamin B1. This nutrient is essential to normal growth and development. It participates in converting the carbohydrates from foods into energy and promotes proper functioning of the heart and nervous systems. At one time, cases of severe thiamin deficiency were not uncommon in the United States. That changed in the 1940s, when authorities started to require that that any B vitamin removed during grain processing be added back in. Today, vitamin B1 is so widely available in foods that most people get more than enough to satisfy basic requirements. Whole grains and enriched grain products, from cereals to pasta and white rice, now constitute a primary source of thiamin for many Americans. Other excellent food sources include dried beans, nuts, and lean pork. Nonetheless, there are still groups at risk of developing a thiamin deficiency: older adults and alcoholics in particular. There are also ...
  http://www.wholehealthmd.com/main/supplements/thiamin-vitamin-b1-32.aspx
*  CSA WEIGHT LOSS SURGERY SUPPORT FORUM • View topic - Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Treatment of severe acute thiamine deficiency is done by giving high doses of intravenous thiamine for several days. If the deficiency is recent complete recovery is expected. However if it is severe and chronic with marked mental and motor impairment, complete recovery occurs in only half of the patients. Thiamine deficiency is diagnosed by the history of frequent vomiting and the symptoms listed above. A blood test confirm the diagnosis, but treatment is never delayed because the test can take several days to process ...
  http://www.commonwealthsurgical.com/websupport/viewtopic.php?p=7
*  Polioencephalomalacia
PEM sometimes occurs on high grain diets, and diets that include plants high on thiaminases and sulfur. Thiaminases are enzymes found in a few plants, such as bracken fern, and the raw flesh and viscera of certain fish and shellfish. When ingested these enzymes split thiamin (Vitamin B1), an important compound in energy metabolism, and render it inactive. Normally ruminants are fairly resistant to thiamin deficiency since rumen microbes provide the animal with sufficient amounts of thiamin. However, the ingestion of thiaminases will lead to deficiency. Additionally, young growing ruminants, especially cattle and sheep, fed high-grain diets are especially susceptible. Diets high in grains can encourage the growth of certain thiaminase-producing bacteria in the rumen. These bacteria, including Clostridium sporogenes and a few species of Bascillus can produce enough thiaminases to induce thiamin deficiency. A thiamine-analogue ...
  http://ag.ansc.purdue.edu/sheep/ansc442/Semprojs/2002/neurological/polio.htm
*  Thiamine deficiency causes neurologic problem | Animal Specialty Group
VETERINARY CASE STUDY: Tilly, a 10-year-old spayed female domestic short hair cat, was referred to Animal Specialty Group on 12/13/2016 for evaluation...
  https://asgvets.com/thiamine-deficiency-causes-neurologic-problem/
*  Severe thiamine deficiency complicated by weight loss protects against renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats - Larkinweb...
2009 Astrid Klooster, James R. Larkin, Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari, Rijk O. B. Gans, Harry van Goor, Paul J. Thornalley, Naila Rabbani, Gerjan Navis, Henri G. D. Leuvenink and Stephan J. L. Bakker, NDT Plus 2 2 182-183 DOI: 10.1093/ndtplus/sfn194
  https://larkinweb.co.uk/research/publications/jerums_2011/
*  Regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity of the rat liver in vitamin B1 deficiency
Abstract: Kinetic patterns and thermostability of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isolated from liver tissue of intact and thiamine-deficient rats, were analyzed. Distinct alterations were not found in the patterns studied. The data obtained suggest that a decrease in the enzymatic activity, observed after administration of oxythiamine into rats, occurred due to lowering in content of the protein active form ...
  http://pbmc.ibmc.msk.ru/index.php/en/article/PBMC-1986-32-3-23-en
*  Alcohol abuse can damage the brain by decreasing insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors | EurekAlert! Science News
Too much alcohol can cause permanent brain damage, such as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, which is largely related to thiamine deficiency. Previous animal studies have shown that alcohol can also cause brain injury and degeneration by inhibiting insulin and insulin-like growth factor. A new study using postmortem human brain tissue has found that chronic alcohol abuse can decrease levels of genes needed for brain cells to respond to insulin/IGF, leading to neurodegeneration similar to that caused by type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-06/ace-aac061308.php
*  Procter & Gamble announces voluntary recall of some Iams canned cat food over thiamine concerns | L.A. Unleashed | Los Angeles...
The Procter & Gamble Co., which owns the Iams pet food brand, announced a voluntary recall of canned Iams ProActive Health cat and kitten foods Wednesday.. The affected cat and kitten foods contain dates between September 2011 and June 2012 printed on the bottom of the cans.. 'Diagnostic testing indicated that the product may contain insufficient levels of thiamine (Vitamin B1), which is essential for cats,' Procter & Gamble said in a news release Wednesday. 'Cats that were fed these canned products as their only food are at greater risk for developing signs of thiamine deficiency.'. Procter & Gamble, in its news release, advised cat owners who have purchased the affected food to throw it out, although Petco, a major Iams distributor, said in its own release that it expects to have details soon about a refund process for affected cat food cans. ...
  http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/unleashed/2010/06/procter-gamble-announces-voluntary-recall-of-some-iams-canned-cat-food-over-thiamine-concerns.html
*  Quantal Mechanism of Transmitter Release during Progressive Depletion of the Presynaptic Stores at a Ganglionic Synapse | JGP
In the present experiments we interfered with the mechanism of acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis in the rat superior cervical ganglion by impairing the supply of either the choline group (hemicholinium no. 3 [HC-3]treatment) or the acetyl group (thiamine deprivation). Under both conditions stimulation causes in the ganglion a progressive decline in ACh output associated with a depletion of transmitter tissue content. ACh release from the terminals of a single preganglionic fiber was estimated from the quantum content value of the evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP's) recorded intracellularly in the ganglion neuron under test. The present observations indicate that Poisson statistics describe transmitter release at either low or high release levels. Furthermore, the progressive decline in the rate of ACh output occurring during repetitive stimulation is shown to correspond to a progressive decrease in the number of transmitter quanta released per impulse and not to ...
  http://jgp.rupress.org/content/61/3/342