*  "Transcobalamin II Deficiency at Birth" by Rene Ratschmann, Milen Minkov et al.
Transcobalamin II deficiency (# MIM 275350) is a rare, recessively inherited disorder of cobalamin transport that leads to intracellular cobalamin depletion with secondary impairment of methionine synthetase and methyl-malonyl CoA mutase activities. Affected individuals may suffer from long-term neurological sequelae if therapy with intramuscular hydroxocobalamin is not initiated promptly. We report two sisters with complete absence of transcobalamin due to homozygosity for a novel mutation (c.insC110) in the TCN2 gene that leads to a premature stop codon and non-functional protein. The older sister, now 4.5 years old, ...
  http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/biochempub/56/
*  Transcobalamin II Deficiency in Four Cases with Novel Mutations [Turk J Hematol]
INTRODUCTION: Transcobalamin II deficiency is one of the rare causes of inherited vitamin B12 disorders in which the patients have characteristically normal or high vitamin B12 levels related to the transport defect of vitamin B12 into the cell, ending up with intracellular cobalamin depletion and high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels ...
  http://www.tjh.com.tr/jvi.aspx?pdir=tjh&plng=eng&un=TJH-85453&look4=
*  Intrinsic factor - Wikipedia
Intrinsic factor (IF), also known as gastric intrinsic factor (GIF), is a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. It is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) later on in the ileum of the small intestine. In humans, the gastric intrinsic factor protein is encoded by the GIF gene. Haptocorrin (also known as HC, R protein, and transcobalamin I, TCN1) is another glycoprotein secreted by the salivary glands which binds to vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is acid sensitive and in binding to transcobalamin I it can safely pass through the acidic stomach to the duodenum. In the less acidic environment of the small intestine, pancreatic enzymes digest the glycoprotein carrier and vitamin B12 can then ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intrinsic_factor
*  Dr. Josep Vidal-Alaball (personal blog): The limited value of methylmalonic acid, homocysteine and holotranscobalamin in the...
Treatment of B12 deficiency is important to prevent progressive neurological and/or hematologic disease but requires a secure diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate second line tests of B12 status as prognostic indicators of a hematologic response to vitamin B12 therapy. Forty-nine patients referred with low, serum vitamin B12 concentrations were treated with intramuscular B12 and re-assessed after 3 months. Methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, holotranscobalamin and neutrophil hypersegmentation index were measured before and after treatment. Before treatment 27/49 patients were anemic or macrocytic of whom 15 had a clear hematologic ...
  http://josep-vidal-alaball.blogspot.com/2006/07/limited-value-of-methylmalonic-acid.html
*  Efficacy and Safety Study of Oral Eligen® B12 in Subjects With Low Serum Cobalamin - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Commercially available 1000 μg cyanocobalamin administered IM as 1 mL from a vial containing 1000 μg/mL drug administered by study personnel, in the research clinic, in the morning, in the fasted state and at least 1 hour prior to the morning meal on study Days 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 30, 60 and 90 ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01312831
*  Efficacy and Safety Study of Oral Eligen® B12 in Subjects With Low Serum Cobalamin - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Commercially available 1000 μg cyanocobalamin administered IM as 1 mL from a vial containing 1000 μg/mL drug administered by study personnel, in the research clinic, in the morning, in the fasted state and at least 1 hour prior to the morning meal on study Days 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 30, 60 and 90 ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01312831?term=vitamin+B12+deficiency&rank=19
*  Biochemical signs of impaired cobalamin status during and after radiotherapy for rectal cancer.
Adult, Aged, Biological Markers/blood, Diarrhea/blood, Female, Homocystine/blood, Humans, Male, Methylmalonic Acid/blood, Middle Aged, Rectal Neoplasms/*blood/*radiotherapy/surgery, Transcobalamins/metabolism, Vitamin B 12/*blood, Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/etiology ...
  http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:154862
*  Publication : USDA ARS
Citation: Garrod, M.G., Allen, L.H., Haan, M.N., Green, R., Miller, J.W. 2010. Transcobalamin C776G genotype modifies the association between vitamin B12 and homocysteine in older hispanics. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 64:503-509, 2010. Interpretive Summary: Vitamin B12 is transported in the plasma and into cells bound to the protein transcobalamin (TC). The gene for TC has several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). One of these, which is relatively common, has a cytosine-to-guanosine substitution at base position 776 of the genomic DNA sequence (776C,G). This causes arginine to substitute for proline in the TC protein but it is not known if this affects the ...
  https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=257321
*  Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults.
BACKGROUND: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations have been associated with cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether low vitamin B-12 or folate status is responsible for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of cognitive decline with vitamin B-12 and folate status in a longitudinal cohort study performed from 1993 to 2003 in Oxford, United Kingdom. DESIGN: Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination on ,/=3 occasions during 10 y and related to serum concentrations of vitamin B-12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), tHcy, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and folate with the use of linear mixed ...
  http://www.tara.tcd.ie/handle/2262/34490
*  namd/vmd - welcome to somewhereville.com
As was the case for the first ChemMedChem December, 2007 cover issue (posted previously), the cover story in this month’s issue is a communication by myself and members and collaborators of the Robert Doyle Group here at Syracuse University. In this case, the work for the cover image actually went into computational research published in the associated article (instead of just a pretty cover image to complement the associated article, which was the intent of the previous cover).. The image below shows the Transcobalamin II (TCII) protein (in teal ribbons, with a bound cyanocobalamin (B12) shown in red. The PDB code for this complex is 2BB5) sitting within the ...
  http://www.somewhereville.com/?cat=18
*  Pilates For Golf Exercises - Hairstyles - Fashion - Makeup - Style
Here's a simplified explanation of the Exercise metabolic pathway:. 1. The Pilates Exercises in food is bound to animal proteins, and your body has to free it. To cleave Exercise from protein, your stomach contains specialized cells in its lining called parietal cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and an enzyme called pepsin.. 2. Your stomach's parietal cells also produce intrinsic factor (IF), a critical protein that makes its way into your intestine to be available for a later step in the Exercise absorption pathway.. 3. Next, other proteins called R-binders ferry the Exercise into your small intestine.. 4. In the intestine, intrinsic factor is bound to the Exercise (with the help of enzymes called pancreatic proteases) and carries it to the last section of the small intestine, the ileum. The cells that ...
  http://livesstar.com/pilates-golf-exercises.html
*  ChemMedChem - Volume 4, Issue 3 - March 16, 2009 - Wiley Online Library
The cover picture shows three views of a vitamin B12-insulin conjugate bound to transcobalamin II, docked in the insulin receptor (IR). This study reveals how the structure of an orally deliverable insulin changes in solution after vitamin B12 conjugation and its effect on IR binding capacity. The results demonstrate that chemical modification of insulin by linking relatively large pendant groups does not interfere with IR recognition. For more details, see the Full Paper by T. J. Fairchild, R. P. Doyle, et al. on p. 421 ff. ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cmdc.v4:3/issuetoc
*  4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice - Danish National...
Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III) alamin (EtPhCbl) is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl) which binds to transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl). In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl suggesting that administration of EtPhCbl may cause cellular Cbl deficiency. Here, we investigate the in vivo effect of EtPhCbl in mice and its ability, if any, to induce Cbl deficiency. We show that EtPhCbl binds to mouse TC and we examined mice that received 3.5 nmol/24h EtPhCbl (n=6), 3.5 nmol/24h CNCbl (n=7) or NaCl (control group) (n=5) through osmotic ...
  http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/catalog/245988357
*  Factor II Deficiency
... is a blood-clotting disorder that results in excessive or prolonged bleeding after an injury or surgery. Factor II is one of 13 proteins involved in proper formation of blood clots. Blood clots are needed to heal wounds, form scabs, and stop bleeding. When factor I levels are low or absent, the blood does not clot correctly, leading to excessive bleeding. Factor II deficiency runs in families and affect both males and females equally. The main symptom of factor II deficiency is excessive and abnormal bleeding. This may occur after childbirth, surgery, trauma, and with menstruation (periods). Bleeding can also occur in the muscles, joints, the mouth, the gut, or, infrequently, the brain. Easy bruising and nosebleeds are also common. ...
  http://diseaseinfosearch.org/Factor+II+Deficiency/2708
*  Comment on
use strict; use warnings; my @processed; while (my $a_line = ,DATA,) { chomp $a_line; if ($a_line =~ /^,/) { #this is a header, keep as is push @processed, $a_line; } else { # This is a dna seq, process #' Translate each three-base codon into amino acid, # and append to a protein my $protein = ''; my $len = length($a_line) -2; for(my $i=0; $i , $len ; $i += 3) { my $codon = substr($a_line, $i,3); $protein .= codon2aa($codon); } push @processed, $protein; } } #now display what we have processed print $_, '\n' for @processed; #' codon2aa #' #' A subroutine to translate a DNA 3-character codon to an amino acid sub codon2aa { my($codon) = @_; if ( $codon =~ /GC./i) { return 'A' } # Alanine elsif ( $codon =~ /TG[TC]/i) { return 'C' } # Cysteine elsif ( $codon =~ /GA[TC]/i) { return 'D' } # Aspartic Acid elsif ( ...
  http://www.perlmonks.org/index.pl?parent=1022287
*  Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome - Wikipedia
Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive, familial form of vitamin B12 deficiency caused by malfunction of the "Cubam" receptor located in the terminal ileum. This receptor is composed of two proteins, amnionless (AMN), and cubilin. A defect in either of these protein components can cause this syndrome. This is a rare disease, with a prevalence about 1 in 200,000, and is usually seen in patients of European ancestry. Vitamin B12 is an important vitamin needed for bone marrow functioning, the deficit of which causes decreased marrow output and anemia. Vitamin B12 has two forms, one of which, along with ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imerslund%E2%80%93Gr%C3%A4sbeck_syndrome
*  GI Panel - Ashland Animal Hospital
The GI Panel is a blood test performed on a FASTED animal (no food for 12 hours) to help evaluate the function of the gastrointestinal tract. The GI Panel includes the following values; Cobalamin (Vitamin B12): Cobalamin is absorbed in the ileum (a specific section of the small intestine). A decreased cobalamin level can be seen…
  https://ashlandanimalhospital.blog/gi-panel/
*  Cobalamin Coenzymes and Vitamin B12 - eLS - Buckel - Wiley Online Library
Cobalamins are derivatives of vitamin B12 that serve as cofactors in various enzymatic reactions involving either radicals or supernucleophilic intermediates. ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470015902.a0000666.pub2/abstract?globalMessage=0
*  Cobalamin Coenzymes and Vitamin B12
Cobalamins are derivatives of vitamin B12 that serve as cofactors in various enzymatic reactions involving either radicals or supernucleophilic intermediates
  http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0000666.html
*  B12 - SYNTHETIC, GMO & NATURAL COBALAMIN - 30 Bananas a Day!
B12 SIMPLE VERSION its all about cobalt - cobalts a metal we need it but cant eat it cause is inorganic so we need a bacteria called cobalamin to eat it f…
  http://www.30bananasaday.com/forum/topics/genetically-modified-gmo-b12?commentId=2684079%3AComment%3A2411372&xg_source=activity
*  Discover Life -- CSCA TCN00001630
Discover Life's page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Discover Life -- CSCA_TCN00001630
  http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20l?id=CSCA_TCN00001630
*  Discover Life -- CSUC TCN00011436
Discover Life's page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Discover Life -- CSUC_TCN00011436
  http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20l?id=CSUC_TCN00011436
*  Discover Life -- CSUC TCN00011632
Discover Life's page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Discover Life -- CSUC_TCN00011632
  http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20l?id=CSUC_TCN00011632
*  iBeetle: TC001110 iB 00214
atagagata aaataaata aacgagaag cagccaaat atcaattta attttcctt gcaaaaatg gccgatcgc aaacctaaa acagactcc ccagaggct gtaattagg ccaaatccg gatataaaa aaaggagaa aataaagaa caggagaaa accgaaggg aaggatgag aaacccgac aaagcaaag ggaaaagga gagcccaag actgaaact aaggagact agagttcga tggttgact cgagcaatg gctgaggat ttcacccga catgatgtg ctattcacc acgtttcgg gaagcagtg ctttacatt attttcgtg attgctgtg acgatttgc acggttggg agacggtcc gcttctatg ttttacatc acccaagcc ctgaaaggc cagtttttg gaaaaagac tttcaaaca gctaatgaa aaagatatt aagtattac gatattagg tcggcgact gatttttgg cattatacg cagtcttta atgctggaa aacttctat tgggaacat tactacaat ccgtacaat cctgtggca aaagccaaa gatgacgac aagaagatt cttttcgaa aacaagttg ctgggagtt ccccgaata agacaagtc aaagtgaag ...
  http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de/details/iB_00214
*  iBeetle: TC011225 iB 04992
ccgacatgg tgacctaac ctctaaacg aacttgttt gacagctgt tttctaaat aggtctatt ttttaattt gagtttaat ttaactaat aaattttgc aattaattg taatttggt taaaatggc gacaagttc agccgcctc tcagaagca atcacaggc cccagccgg tgttaagga gtatacaat caaagtacc gaaaaacgt ccagaagcg ataccatgt aatgagatt taatggaaa tcttgaagt ggattttgc caagtggac gcaggtcaa aatggaaag ggagaataa tttgaaaga gtacaaaag cgtcgaaga agaacaacc aaagtttgg cgcaggttc ggagtttgg ccgcgaggc caaagagga agcccgtcg caaaaaact gggaatagt tgctagaaa ataccgacc tgaggacca gccttggat tttgaagtc ttacggaag cactgtgaa aaaattcaa ggggattcg agaaggcgg tgtttctga aaacacagc ctactatgt tttcactca tgctgctga tggtgcaat tgaggcttt tccgttaca cgaatggta caaatttca accaattca ...
  http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de/details/iB_04992