*  Fungemia - Wikipedia
The most commonly known pathogen is Candida albicans, causing roughly 70% of fungemias, followed by Candida glabrata with 10%, Aspergillus with 1% and Saccharomyces as the fourth most common.[citation needed] However, the frequency of infection by C. glabrata, Saccharomyces boulardii, Candida tropicalis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis is increasing, perhaps because significant use of fluconazole is common or due to increase in antibiotic use.[citation needed]. New emerging pathogen: Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) yeast that can cause invasive infections and is associated with high mortality. It was first described in 2009 after being isolated from external ear discharge of a patient in Japan. Since the 2009 report, C. auris infections, specifically fungemia, have been reported from South Korea, India, South Africa, and Kuwait. Although published reports are not available, C. auris has also been identified in Colombia, Venezuela, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom.[3]. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungemia
*  Review: parental smoking increases risk of recurrent otitis media, middle ear effusion, and tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy in...
There are increasing public health concerns about the effects of passive tobacco smoke exposure. Clinical research is providing evidence that children who inhale secondhand smoke may have a higher incidence of health problems such as upper respiratory infections, otitis media, tonsillitis, aggravation of chronic respiratory conditions, and sudden infant death syndrome.1. The meta-analysis by Strachan and Cook clearly confirms the effect of environmental tobacco exposure on young children's risk of developing middle ear problems. This is consistent with a previous meta-analysis which concluded that use of tobacco products by adults increased childhood mortality and morbidity.2. The authors chose to include only published studies in their review. This exclusion could affect the conclusions of the review because of the potential for "publication bias" (ie, studies that are published are more likely to report ...
  http://ebn.bmj.com/content/1/4/124
*  Review: parental smoking increases risk of recurrent otitis media, middle ear effusion, and tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy in...
There are increasing public health concerns about the effects of passive tobacco smoke exposure. Clinical research is providing evidence that children who inhale secondhand smoke may have a higher incidence of health problems such as upper respiratory infections, otitis media, tonsillitis, aggravation of chronic respiratory conditions, and sudden infant death syndrome.1. The meta-analysis by Strachan and Cook clearly confirms the effect of environmental tobacco exposure on young children's risk of developing middle ear problems. This is consistent with a previous meta-analysis which concluded that use of tobacco products by adults increased childhood mortality and morbidity.2. The authors chose to include only published studies in their review. This exclusion could affect the conclusions of the review because of the potential for "publication bias" (ie, studies that are published are more likely to report ...
  http://ebn.bmj.com/content/1/4/124?cited-by=yes&legid=ebnurs%3B1%2F4%2F124
*  Ear Infection | Kansas City, MO | Child Care Limited
The intense ear pain of acute otitis media can be partially relieved by adequate doses of ibuprofen or acetaminophen. For more severe earaches, some doctors may prescribe codeine. Numbing eardrops provide minimal relief, and only for a short time. A warm washcloth or sweet oil (olive oil) directly instilled in the ear canal may temporarily distract from the child's ear pain.. Nearly all doctors in the United States believe that acute otitis media should be treated with antibiotics by mouth, particularly if the child has symptoms. Antibiotics generally provide prompt and dramatic relief of the ear pain. Oral antibiotics for acute otitis media are safe and effective, with exceedingly rare serious side effects.. In a few European countries, ear infections are not treated in ...
  http://www.childcarelimited.com/Medical-Content/Medical-Conditions/Ear-Infection.aspx
*  Ear Infection | Aurora, CO | Rocky Mountain Health Centers Pediatrics
The intense ear pain of acute otitis media can be partially relieved by adequate doses of ibuprofen or acetaminophen. For more severe earaches, some doctors may prescribe codeine. Numbing eardrops provide minimal relief, and only for a short time. A warm washcloth or sweet oil (olive oil) directly instilled in the ear canal may temporarily distract from the child's ear pain.. Nearly all doctors in the United States believe that acute otitis media should be treated with antibiotics by mouth, particularly if the child has symptoms. Antibiotics generally provide prompt and dramatic relief of the ear pain. Oral antibiotics for acute otitis media are safe and effective, with exceedingly rare serious side effects.. In a few European countries, ear infections are not treated in ...
  http://rmhcpeds.com/Medical-Content/Medical-Conditions/Ear-Infection.aspx
*  Welcome to CDC stacks | Novel Type of Streptococcus pneumoniae Causing Multidrug-Resistant Acute Otitis Media in Children -...
After our recent discovery of a Streptococcus pneumoniae 19A "superbug" (Legacy strain) that is resistant to all Food and Drug Administration-approved antimicrobial drugs for treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) in children, other S. pneumoniae isolates from children with AOM were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among 40 isolates studied, 16 (40%) were serotype 19A, and 9 (23%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs. Two others had unreported sequence types (STs) that expressed the 19A capsule, and 8 (88%) of the 9 multidrug-resistant strains were serotype 19A, including the Legacy strain with the new ST-2722. In genetic relatedness, ST-2722 belonged to a cluster of reported strains of S. pneumoniae in which all strains had 6 of the same alleles as ST-156. The multidrug-resistant strains related to ST-156 expressed different capsular serotypes: 9V, 14, 11A, 15C, and 19F ...
  https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/17167
*  A mutation in Nischarin causes otitis media via LIMK1 and NF-κB pathways. - Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences
Otitis media (OM), inflammation of the middle ear (ME), is a common cause of conductive hearing impairment. Despite the importance of the disease, the aetiology of chronic and recurrent forms of middle ear inflammatory disease remains poorly understood. Studies of the human population suggest that there is a significant genetic component predisposing to the development of chronic OM, although the underlying genes are largely unknown. Using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis we identified a recessive mouse mutant, edison, that spontaneously develops a conductive hearing loss due to chronic OM. The causal mutation was identified as a missense change, L972P, in the Nischarin (NISCH) gene. edison mice develop a serous or granulocytic effusion, increasingly macrophage and neutrophil rich with age, along with a thickened, inflamed mucoperiosteum. We also identified a second ...
  https://www.nds.ox.ac.uk/publications/723891
*  Ear Infections
Middle ear infections usually occur along with an upper respiratory infection (URI), such as a cold. Fluid builds up in the middle ear, creating a perfect breeding ground for bacteria or viruses to grow into an ear infection.. Pus forms as the body tries to fight the ear infection. More fluid collects and pushes against the eardrum, causing pain and sometimes problems hearing. Fever typically lasts a few days. And pain and crying usually last for several hours. After that, most children have some pain on and off for several days, although young children may have pain that comes and goes for more than a week. Antibiotic treatment may shorten some symptoms. But most of the time the immune system can fight infection and heal the ear infection without the use of these medicines.. In severe cases, too much fluid can increase pressure on the ...
  https://myhealth.alberta.ca/health/pages/conditions.aspx?hwid=hw184385
*  Prevalence of Otitis Media With Effusion Among Children in Xi'an, China : A Randomized Survey in China's Mainland
Objectives: We sought to identify the prevalence of otitis media with effusion (OME) in urban Chinese children in Xi'an, China.. Methods: Five kindergartens and 3 primary schools were randomly selected in the urban area of Xi'an. Screening otoscopic and tympanometric examinations were performed on 2,902 children (1,491 boys and 1,411 girls) 2 to 8 years of age. Children with an abnormal tympanogram and simultaneous otomicroscopic signs of effusion were given a diagnosis of OME.. Results: The overall prevalence of OME was 4.3%. By age group, the prevalence was 14.0% in 2-year-olds, 8.3% in 3-year-olds, 5.0% in 4-year-olds, 4.9% in 5-year-olds, 2.8% in 6-year-olds, 1.7% in 7-year-olds, and 3.2% in 8-year-olds. The prevalence rate for OME was 4.7% for boys versus 3.9% for girls, and 3.0% in the right ear versus 2.7% in the ...
  http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:448764
*  Ear Infection and a Ringing Sound
Like the rest of your body, your ears can suffer from viral and bacterial infections. Ear infections can affect your inner and outer ear, but they most often appear in your middle ear. A condition that appears commonly in children, ear infections can cause a variety of symptoms. Along with the other discomforts that may accompany your ear infection, you can experience a ringing sound in your ears. While some instances of ear infections and ringing in the ears clear up naturally, others require medical intervention.. ...
  https://www.modernmom.com/2e09f07a-051f-11e2-9d62-404062497d7e.html
*  Strain-Specific Virulence Phenotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae Assessed Using the Chinchilla laniger Model of Otitis Media
BackgroundStreptococcus pneumoniae [Sp] infection is associated with local and systemic disease. Our current understanding of the differential contributions of genetic strain variation, serotype, and host response to disease phenotype is incomplete. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media [OM] we investigated the disease phenotype generated by the laboratory strain TIGR4 and each of thirteen clinical strains (BS68-75, BS290, BS291, BS293, BS436 and BS437); eleven of the thirteen strains have been genomically sequenced.Methodology/Principal FindingsFor each strain 100 colony forming units were injected bilaterally into the tympanic bullae of 6 young adult chinchillas under general anesthesia. All animals were examined daily for local and systemic disease by a blinded observer. Pneumatic otoscopy was used to evaluate local disease, and behavioral assessments served as the measure of systemic disease. Virulence scoring was performed using a 4-point scale to assess four ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0001969
*  HKU Scholars Hub: Serous otitis media: An opportunity for early recognition of nasopharyngeal carcinoma
In a prospective study of 271 new patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 36 (13.3%) were found to have cranial nerve involvement. Serous otitis media (SOM) was found in 98 (41.4%) of 237 patients who had undergone complete otologic assessment. The local control of tumor and actuarial survival of three subgroups of patients, namely, 80 patients with SOM only, 11 patients with cranial nerve palsy only, and 18 patients with both SOM and cranial nerve palsy, were analyzed. The local control of tumor was better in patients with SOM alone than in those with cranial nerve palsy alone; those patients with both SOM and cranial nerve involvement had worse local control as well as survival. As SOM is not uncommon in the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and adult-onset SOM is otherwise distinctly uncommon, this provides a good opportunity for early recognition and, perhaps, better control of nasopharyngeal carcinoma ...
  http://hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/172677
*  Efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in preventing infectious and inflammatory complications following impacted mandibular...
To find out whether the frequency of postoperative infectious and inflammatory complications (IC) in subjects treated with placebo (Pl) is greater than those treated with antibiotic (Ab) after extraction of an impacted mandibular third molar (M3). Ou
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Efficacy-acid-in-preventing-infectious/15953905.html
*  Augmentin 312 Mg, Amoxicillin/ Clavulanic Acid | ePharmapedia
Antibacterials, Pencillins, Aminopenicillins, This medicine is indicated in the following diseases: - Upper respiratory tract infections. - Lower respiratory tract infections. - Skin and soft tissue infections. - Genito-urinary tract infections - Other infections: osteomyelitis, septicamia, peritonitis, post operative infections.
  https://www.epharmapedia.com/medicine/profile/226571/Augmentin_312_mg.html?lang=en
*  Efficacy of Short-Course Antimicrobial Treatment for Children With Acute Otitis Media and Impact on Resistance - Full Text View...
Proportion of children initially diagnosed with AOM who experience treatment failure at or before the day 12-14 visit.. TF is defined as substantial persistence or worsening of symptoms specifically attributable to AOM, or of otoscopic signs of AOM, after 72 hours from the time of randomization, such that additional antimicrobial therapy is deemed advisable. If a parent/legal guardian is unwilling to continue the assigned study product regimen, the participant will be categorized as TF. Should a participant be administered another systemic antibiotic while taking study medication or prior to Day 16, the participant will be considered a TF. Clinical success is defined as complete or substantial resolution of symptoms specifically attributable to AOM for 48 hours and of otoscopic signs of acute inflammation (bulging of the tympanic membrane (TM) or intense erythema), with or without persistence of middle-ear effusion, such that no additional antibiotic therapy is deemed ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01511107?term=drug+resistant+AND+NIAID&recr=Open&rank=13
*  Efficacy of Short-Course Antimicrobial Treatment for Children With Acute Otitis Media and Impact on Resistance - Full Text View...
Proportion of children initially diagnosed with AOM who experience treatment failure at or before the day 12-14 visit.. TF is defined as substantial persistence or worsening of symptoms specifically attributable to AOM, or of otoscopic signs of AOM, after 72 hours from the time of randomization, such that additional antimicrobial therapy is deemed advisable. If a parent/legal guardian is unwilling to continue the assigned study product regimen, the participant will be categorized as TF. Should a participant be administered another systemic antibiotic while taking study medication or prior to Day 16, the participant will be considered a TF. Clinical success is defined as complete or substantial resolution of symptoms specifically attributable to AOM for 48 hours and of otoscopic signs of acute inflammation (bulging of the tympanic membrane (TM) or intense erythema), with or without persistence of middle-ear effusion, such that no additional antibiotic therapy is deemed ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01511107?term=respiratory+failure+OR+hypoxemic+respiratory+failure+OR+hypercapnic+respiratory+failure&recr=Open&fund=01&rank=19
*  Efficacy of Short-Course Antimicrobial Treatment for Children With Acute Otitis Media and Impact on Resistance - Full Text View...
Proportion of children initially diagnosed with AOM who experience treatment failure at or before the day 12-14 visit.. TF is defined as substantial persistence or worsening of symptoms specifically attributable to AOM, or of otoscopic signs of AOM, after 72 hours from the time of randomization, such that additional antimicrobial therapy is deemed advisable. If a parent/legal guardian is unwilling to continue the assigned study product regimen, the participant will be categorized as TF. Should a participant be administered another systemic antibiotic while taking study medication or prior to Day 16, the participant will be considered a TF. Clinical success is defined as complete or substantial resolution of symptoms specifically attributable to AOM for 48 hours and of otoscopic signs of acute inflammation (bulging of the tympanic membrane (TM) or intense erythema), with or without persistence of middle-ear effusion, such that no additional antibiotic therapy is deemed ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01511107?view=record
*  Efficacy of Short-Course Antimicrobial Treatment for Children With Acute Otitis Media and Impact on Resistance - Full Text View...
Proportion of children initially diagnosed with AOM who experience treatment failure at or before the day 12-14 visit.. TF is defined as substantial persistence or worsening of symptoms specifically attributable to AOM, or of otoscopic signs of AOM, after 72 hours from the time of randomization, such that additional antimicrobial therapy is deemed advisable. If a parent/legal guardian is unwilling to continue the assigned study product regimen, the participant will be categorized as TF. Should a participant be administered another systemic antibiotic while taking study medication or prior to Day 16, the participant will be considered a TF. Clinical success is defined as complete or substantial resolution of symptoms specifically attributable to AOM for 48 hours and of otoscopic signs of acute inflammation (bulging of the tympanic membrane (TM) or intense erythema), with or without persistence of middle-ear effusion, such that no additional antibiotic therapy is deemed ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01511107?view=results
*  Private schools brace for swine flu - GreenwichTime
With experts warning of a more virulent spread of the H1N1 virus later this year, private school officials say they plan to abide closely by new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for addressing swine flu at their schools.|br/||br/|With the 5-to-24-year-old bracket the most susceptible, private and public schools are now looking to the updated federal guidelines as a template for mapping out their own plans to combat the virus in the months ahead.|br/||br/|The guidelines leave decisions on school closures, as well as the nuts and bolts of virus prevention plans, up to local officials and administrators, state officials said.|br/||br/|To avoid infections, private schools administrators say they are taking a variety of measures, chiefly encouraging staff to keep a closer watch of students who appear to have fevers or flu-like symptoms, particularly at the beginning the school year.|br/||br/|If closures come to pass, or a ...
  http://www.greenwichtime.com/news/article/Private-schools-brace-for-swine-flu-3188.php
*  Health Article - Mastoidectomy - AARP
A mastoidectomy is a surgical procedure that removes diseased mastoid air cells. These cells sit behind your ear in a hollow space in your skull. The diseased cells are often the result of an ear infection that has spread into your skull.. The infection sometimes spreads to the temporal bone. Your doctor may need to remove parts of the infected bone if this occurs. This results in hearing loss.. There are several types of mastoidectomy, including:. ...
  http://healthtools.aarp.org/health/mastoidectomy
*  Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery
Many kids get middle ear infections (otitis media). Doctors may suggest ear tube surgery for those with multiple infections or a hearing loss or speech delay.
  http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/ear-infections.html?view=rr&WT.ac=p-rr
*  Chronic Ear Infections | Littleton Head and Neck Surgery | Comprehensive ENT
Treatment For Chronic Ear Infections: Sometimes ear infections and/or fluid in the middle ear may become a chronic problem leading to other issues, such as hearing loss, poor school performance, or behavior and speech problems
  http://comprehensiveent.com/Chronic-Ear-Infections
*  My Lo has an ear infection :( - BabyCenter
So my LO (little one) has been super cranky these past 3 days, won't sleep through the night and I've had to bring him to my bed to sleep ( we do sleep in the same room) and last night I noticed that he was even more fussy and he kept rubbing his ear. Sure enough, this morning I take him to the ER and he has an ear infection :( He on antibiotics now.. I hate seeing him sick .Have any of you experienced an ear infection with your LO, how long do they last? I know I should of asked the doctor but didn't think of it. Also, I had taken away his pacifier last Saturday and he was totally fine without it... should I give it back to him now, or continue without it?
  https://community.babycenter.com/post/a39705415/my_lo_has_an_ear_infection
*  Cholesteatoma Pictures - Cholesteatoma.com
If you're wondering what a cholesteatoma looks like, use these photos for reference. These are pictures of the ear canal of people with cholesteatomas.. ...
  http://www.cholesteatoma.com/cholesteatoma-pictures/
*  Haryana CM Manohar Lal Khattar Directs Private Schools To Admit Children From BPL Families
Manohar Lal Khattar, the Chief Minister for Haryana, yesterday said that the state education department must ensure that children from Below Poverty Line (BPL) families get admission in private schools under the Right to Education (RTE) Act.
  https://www.ndtv.com/education/haryana-cm-manohar-lal-khattar-directs-private-schools-to-admit-children-from-bpl-families-1672109