*  Biological sulphate reduction with primary sewage sludge in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor - Part 5: Steady-state model
POINAPEN, J e EKAMA, GA. Biological sulphate reduction with primary sewage sludge in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor - Part 5: Steady-state model. Water SA [online]. 2010, vol.36, n.3, pp.193-202. ISSN 1816-7950.. This paper describes the development of a steady-state anaerobic digestion model for biological sulphate reduction using primary sewage sludge (PSS) as substrate. The model comprises: a chemical oxygen demand (COD) based hydrolysis kinetics part in which the PSS biodegradable COD and sulphate removals are calculated for given hydraulic and sludge retention times; a C, H, O, N, P, S, COD and charge mass balance stoichiometry part in which the alkalinity generated (from both the HCO3- and HS-) is determined from the COD and sulphate removals; and an inorganic carbon (CO2) and sulphide mixed weak acid/base chemistry part in which the digester pH is calculated from the HCO3- and HS- species formed. From the stoichiometry, it was found that the PSS is carbon limited in that it does ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1816-79502010000300001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  British Library EThOS: Interrelationships between sulphate-reducing bacteria and other bacteria groups in an anoxic estuarine...
The lactic acid oxidising, sulphate-reducing bacteria were numerically predominant over the acetic acid oxidising sulphate- reducing bacteria in the sediments at station C in the River Don estuary. The numbers of acetic acid oxidising, sulphate-reducing bacteria were higher than the acetic acid oxidising, sulphur-reducing group. The anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria and Escherichia coli. were, also present in high numbers at station C. Demographic fluctuations in the numbers of these bacterial groups demonstrated periodicity influenced seasonally. High numbers of bacteria were associated with low winter temperatures, high sulphide concentrations, more negative redox potentials and high suspended solids in the river water. The numbers of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria were highly correlated with the numbers of lactic acid oxidising, sulphate-reducing bacteria. Fluctuations in bacterial, populations demonstrated similar trends to those observed by Parkes for 1975-1976 substantiating the hypothesis ...
  http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.592179
*  Use of compost bacteria to degrade cellulose from grass cuttings in biological removal of sulphate from acid mine drainage
MATSHUSA-MASITHI, MP; OGOLA, JS y CHIMUKA, L. Use of compost bacteria to degrade cellulose from grass cuttings in biological removal of sulphate from acid mine drainage. Water SA [online]. 2009, vol.35, n.1, pp.111-116. ISSN 1816-7950.. The study focused on the use of compost bacteria to degrade cellulose from grass cuttings as energy and carbon sources for sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in a biological reactor. The fermentation of grass cuttings was carried out by anaerobic bacteria isolated from compost, thereby producing volatile fatty acids (VFA) and other intermediates, which were used as carbon and energy sources for sulphate reduction by SRB. Grass was added daily to the reactor in order to obtain maximum production of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and VFA. The results indicated that daily addition of grass is essential for the efficient VFA production, sulphate reduction and for the cell growth of the microbial biomass. Sulphate reduction of 38% was achieved with an average reactor ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1816-79502009000100014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Wholesale Feed Manganese Sulfate, China Wholesale Feed Manganese Sulfate Manufacturers & Suppliers | Made-in-China.com
Wholesale Feed Manganese Sulfate - Select 2017 high quality Wholesale Feed Manganese Sulfate products in best price from certified Chinese Sodium Acid Sulfate manufacturers, Manganese Sulfate suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
  http://www.made-in-china.com/products-search/hot-china-products/Wholesale_Feed_Manganese_Sulfate.html
*  An Intertwined Evolutionary History of Methanogenic Archaea and Sulfate Reduction
Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and dissimilatory sulfate reduction, two of the oldest energy conserving respiratory systems on Earth, apparently could not have evolved in the same host, as sulfite, an intermediate of sulfate reduction, inhibits methanogenesis. However, certain methanogenic archaea metabolize sulfite employing a deazaflavin cofactor (F420)-dependent sulfite reductase (Fsr) where N- and C-terminal halves (Fsr-N and Fsr-C) are homologs of F420H2 dehydrogenase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr), respectively. From genome analysis we found that Fsr was likely assembled from freestanding Fsr-N homologs and Dsr-like proteins (Dsr-LP), both being abundant in methanogens. Dsr-LPs fell into two groups defined by following sequence features: Group I (simplest), carrying a coupled siroheme-[Fe4-S4] cluster and sulfite-binding Arg/Lys residues; Group III (most complex), with group I features, a Dsr-type peripheral [Fe4-S4] cluster and an additional [Fe4-S4] cluster. Group II Dsr-LPs ...
  https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/48996
*  Photocatalysis assisted by peroxymonosulfate and persulfate for benzotriazole degradation: effect of pH on sulfate and hydroxyl...
Article Photocatalysis assisted by peroxymonosulfate and persulfate for benzotriazole degradation: effect of pH on sulfate and hydroxyl radicals. Recently, notable attempts have been devoted to removing emerging pollutants from water resources. Benzo...
  https://www.environmental-expert.com/articles/photocatalysis-assisted-by-peroxymonosulfate-and-persulfate-for-benzotriazole-degradation-effect-of--663117
*  Rates of carbonate cementation associated with sulphate reduction in DSDP/ODP sediments: implications for the formation of...
DSDP/ODP porewater profiles in organic carbon-bearing (,5% org. C) sediments commonly show decreases in Ca2+ concentrations and increases in alkalinity over depths where sulphate is being removed by microbial reduction. These Ca2+ depletion profiles represent the combined effect of diffusion, advection and reaction (addition by ion exchange and removal by precipitation mainly as CaCO3 and/or dolomite). A diagenetic model has been used to estimate the rate constant (k) for Ca2+ removal by precipitation during sulphate depletion over depths of 15-150 m, assuming first order kinetics. The rate constants for Ca2+ removal range from 10(-14) to 10(-11) s(-1) in 19 DSDP/ODP sediments, which span a range of bottom water temperatures (0-10 degreesC), lithologies (calcareous to clastic) and sedimentation rates (0.001-0.4 cm year(-1)). Values of k correlate with sedimentation rate (omega) such that log k=1.16 log omega-10.3, indicating that faster rates of Ca2+ removal occur at higher sedimentation rates ...
  http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/404/
*  Biological sulphate reduction with primary sewage sludge in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor - Part 5: Steady-state model
Hence Total alk = [HCO3-] + [HS-] = [HCO3-] + ([H2S]+[HS-]) /(1+10pK's1-pH) from which Eq. (13b) can be obtained.. For the experimental system fed carbon deficient organics, the 6 parameters which are required to be known are the same 6 parameters as mentioned above, except that the [HCO3-] concentration is exchanged for the pH. The reactor in situ pH, total sulphide (ST), OP (PT) and ammonia (NT) concentrations are direct measurements; the sulphide is measured with the COD test (Poinapen et al., 2009b). The H2CO3* Alk and VFA concentrations are measured with the 5-point titration method of Moosbrugger et al. (1992) using the 4 direct measurements as input. Interestingly, the Total alk generated is governed only by the composition of the biodegradable organics utilised and the type of bioprocess, e.g. methanogenesis or sulphidogenesis. With methanogenesis, the Total alk generated is a consequence of the difference between the protons taken up or released in the breakdown of the biodegradable ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1816-79502010000300001&lng=pt&nrm=iso
*  Biological sulphate reduction with primary sewage sludge in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor - Part 3: Performance...
Analysis of R2 waste sludge. UASB R2 waste sludge was analysed on 6 operational days (Table 6) and was found to have an average particulate organic COD/VSS (fcv) and TKN/VSS (fn) of 1.611 ± 0.041 and 0.068± 0.016 respectively.. Mass balances on R2. Mass balances were conducted on R2 to check experimental data reliability. Similar to UASB R1 when fed 1 500 mgSO42-/ℓ during the first 280 d (Poinapen et al. , 2009a), prior to the modification of the analytical procedures for accurate measurement of aqueous sulphide, the R2 system COD mass balance was relatively low (91.7 ± 5.2%) while the S mass balance was poor (69.4 ± 6.4%). However, these mass balances, particularly the S mass balance, improved considerably with the modified analytical method for H2S measurement. The COD mass balance increased to 98.0% (± 0.2%) while the S mass balance averaged 95.9% (± 0.2%). These good mass balances confirm the reliability of the measured data and the modified methods for aqueous H2S measurement ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1816-79502009000500003&lng=es&nrm=iso
*  Biological sulphate reduction with primary sewage sludge in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor -Part 4: Bed settling...
From Fig. 9, it can be seen that the BERs for the R2 sludge (20ºC) are higher than those of the R1 sludge (35ºC) at all operating Vup values from 3.98 (Column 1) to 1.16 m/h (Column 4). The BER of the R2 sludge is arund 2.0 in Columns 1 to 3 as the expanded bed concentration increases from 2.43 to 5.91 gTSS/ℓ and Vup decreases from 3.98 to 1.73 m/h in Columns 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Interestingly, the flux, or product of the expanded bed concentration and settling velocity, of the solids retained in Columns 1 to 3 remains approximately constant at around 10 kgTSS/(m2·h) at the BER of 2.0. Only in Column 4 at the lowest Vup (1.16 m/h) is the concentration and flux very low at 0.46 gTSS/ℓ and 1.14 kgTSS/(m2·h) respectively. For the R1 sludge, the BERs are somewhat lower (1.8). However, the concentrations and fluxes are much higher in the first two columns (1 and 2) than those of the first two columns of the R2 sludge the concentrations are 7.70 and 8.97 gTSS/ℓ and the fluxes 30.6 and ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1816-79502009000500004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  MS Grade Sulfated Peptide Standard Mixture II - Creative Proteomics
Sulfated Peptide Standards are lyophilized peptides that are useful for the standardization and method development of sulfoproteomic analyses. Each Peptide Standard is Certified Mass Spec Grade and provided in convenient, lyophilized vials for easy reconstitution and usage.
  https://www.creative-proteomics.com/product/detail-cpas100116_35238.htm
*  Water Resources Investigations Report 95-4251 Abstract
In inland areas of northwest central Florida, sulfate concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer are extremely variable and sometimes exceed drinking water standards (250 milligrams per liter). This is unusual because the aquifer is unconfined and near the surface, allowing for active recharge. The sources of sulfate and geochemical processes controlling ground-water composition were evaluated in this area. Water was sampled from thirty-three wells in parts of Marion, Sumter, and Citrus Counties, within the Southwest Florida Water Management District; these included at least a shallow and a deep well at fifteen separate locations. Ground water was analyzed for major ions, selected trace constituents, dissolved organic carbon, and stable isotopes (sulfur-34 of sulfate and sulfide, carbon-13 of inorganic carbon, deuterium, and oxygen-18). Sulfate concentrations ranged from less than 0.2 to 1,400 milligrams per liter, with higher sulfate concentrations usually in water from deeper wells. The ...
  https://fl.water.usgs.gov/Abstracts/wri95_4251_sacks.html
*  Manganese Sulfate USP Manganese Sulphate BP ACS FCC
Pure MnSO4 Manganese Sulfate Manufacturers, Manganese Sulphate BP Ph Eur IP USP FCC ACS Manufacturers, Exporters to USA Canada South Africa Tanzania Kenya
  http://www.manganesesulfate.org/manganesesulfateusp-bp-acs.htm
*  FISH shows that Desulfotomaculum spp. are the dominating sulfate-reducing bacteria in a pristine aquifer.
The hydrochemistry and the microbial diversity of a pristine aquifer system near Garzweiler, Germany, were characterized. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic data indicate a recent activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the Tertiary marine sands. The com
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/FISH-shows-that-Desulfotomaculum-spp/15085304.html
*  RCSB PDB - 1H29: Sulfate respiration in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: Structure of the 16-heme Cytochrome c...
1H29: Sulfate Respiration in Desulfovibrio Vulgaris Hildenborough: Structure of the 16-Heme Cytochrome C Hmca at 2.5 A Resolution and a View of its Role in Transmembrane Electron Transfer
  http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/derivedData.do?structureId=1H29
*  How do you test for sulfate levels?
... Is the sulfate level likely to get high using dry acid to decrease pH using liquid chlorine following TFP guidelines?
  http://www.troublefreepool.com/threads/91299-How-do-you-test-for-sulfate-levels
*  High affinity sulfate transporter elisa and antibody
Shop High affinity sulfate transporter ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and High affinity sulfate transporter Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
  https://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=high-affinity-sulfate-transporter
*  The metabolism of potassium dodecyl [35S]-sulphate in the rat | Biochemical Journal
The metabolic fate of potassium dodecyl [35S]sulphate was studied in rats. Intraperitoneal and oral administration of the ester into free-ranging animals were followed by the excretion of the bulk of the radioactivity in the urine within 12hr., approximately 17% being eliminated as inorganic [35S]sulphate. Similar results were obtained in experiments in which potassium dodecyl [35S]sulphate was injected intravenously into anaesthetized rats with bile-duct and ureter cannulae. Analysis of urinary radioactivity revealed the presence of a new ester sulphate (metabolite A). This metabolite was isolated, purified and subsequently identified as the sulphate ester of 4-hydroxybutyric acid by paper, thin-layer and gas chromatography, by paper electrophoresis and by comparison of its properties with those of authentic butyric acid 4-sulphate. The identity of the metabolite was confirmed by isotope-dilution experiments. When either purified metabolite A or authentic potassium butyric acid 4[35S]-sulphate ...
  http://www.biochemj.org/content/111/1/43
*  A discussion on the recognition of alien life - Stable isotopes as a guide to biogeochemical processes | Proceedings of the...
Isotopic distribution is a function of physical and biological processes. In general, equilibrium-controlled reactions occur at high temperatures among solid phases, whereas low-temperature reactions, especially those mediated by organisms, are kinetically controlled. The solar and stellar abundance of isotopes is poorly known. Knowledge of extra-terrestrial distributions of the isotopes of light elements presently comes from lunar and meteorite measurements. On Earth, the elements associated with biological synthesis which have been studied most intensively, are hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur. In general, reduced products of metabolism are enriched in light isotopes. Thus, 1H and 12C are enriched in hydrogen gas and methane, when produced by fermentation or CO2 reduction. Nitrogen gas is enriched in 14N when produced by denitrification, and H2S is highly enriched in 32S when it results from sulphate reduction. A pattern of biological enrichment factors has been recognized on ...
  http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/189/1095/183
*  Removal of Sulfate Ion From AN-107 by Evaporation - Digital Library
Hanford low-activity waste solutions contain sulfate, which can cause accelerated corrosion of the vitrification melter and unacceptable operating conditions. A method is needed to selectively separate sulfate from the waste. An experiment was conducted to evaluate evaporation for removing sulfate ion from Tank AN-107 low-activity waste. Two evaporation steps were performed. In the first step, the volume was reduced by 55% while in the second step, the liquid volume was reduced another 22%. Analysis of the solids precipitated during these evaporations revealed that large amounts of sodium nitrate and nitrite co-precipitated with sodium sulfate. Many other waste components precipitated as well. It can be concluded that sulfate removal by precipitation is not selective, and thus, evaporation is not a viable option for removing sulfate from the AN-107 liquid.
  https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc707322/
*  College of Engineering
The effect of alternating oxic and anoxic conditions (12 h oxic‐12 h anoxie) on sulfate reducing activity, iron‐sulfur chemistry and the corrosion of mild steel, has been studied in biofilm reactors. During the experiment ...
  https://scholarworks.montana.edu/xmlui/handle/1/27
*  Sulphation and Autism: What are the links? | The Autism File
I have always been interested in the sulphation pathway as addition of a sulphate group can make dramatic changes to the properties of both drugs and tissue components. Our group first started working in the field of autism about 15 years ago, when we were asked to measure the metabolism of paracetamol in an autistic child. At the time, I had only heard the orthodox medical view that autism was 'all in the mind' and had no biochemical basis. To our great surprise, we found that children with autism, unlike the age-matched controls, were much less able to form the sulphate conjugate of paracetamol, although the other metabolic pathways were normal. We went on to look at the levels of sulphate in the blood plasma, because sulphation capacity depends on both the amount of sulphate available and also the activity of the enzyme that carries out the reaction. We found that autistic children generally had low sulphate levels, typically about 10-15% of the control values. Sulphate is produced in vivo by ...
  http://www.autismfile.com/science-research/sulphation-and-autism-what-are-the-links
*  Toward non-toxic antifouling: synthesis of hydroxy-, cinnamic acid-, sulfate-, and zosteric acid-labeled poly[3...
The side-chain double bonds of bacterial poly[3-hydroxyalkanoate-co-3-hydroxyalkenoate] (PHAE, 1) were transformed into thioether bonds (derivative 2) via the radical addition reaction of 11-mercapto-1-undecanol. The terminal hydroxy functionalities
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Toward-non-toxic-antifouling-synthesis/15244464.html
*  solid bleached sulphate list - solid bleached sulphate for sale
solid bleached sulphate for sale - 167 - solid bleached sulphate wholesalers & solid bleached sulphate manufacturers from China manufacturers.
  http://www.chinaqualitycrafts.com/wholesale-solid-bleached-sulphate
*  Haircare | Sulphate Free Haircare | HQhair.com | Free Delivery
Want to steer clear of adding sulphates to your hair? Take a look at HQhair's innovative range of sulphate free haircare. Free delivery options available.
  https://www.hqhair.com/health-beauty/hair/sulphate-free-haircare.list