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*  Anisogramma anomala - Wikipedia
After the initial infection the pathogen can eventually spread to the phloem, cambium, and even the outer xylem. This fungal ... Anisogramma anomala is an ascomycete that has a two year disease cycle. Infection is thought to typically occur during the wet ... Wind driven water droplets and splashing spread the spores to new potential hosts. Anisogramma anomala's host is the European ... The stromata typically develop the second summer after the initial infection. Within the stroma, perithecia are produced that ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anisogramma_anomala
*  Innate immune evasion strategies against Cryptococcal meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans (Review)
During the initial stage of fungal infection, a complex network of innate immune factors are activated. C. neoformans utilizes ... neoformans is typically acquired by inhaling spores or desiccated yeast from the environment (3). Following an initial ... neoformans infection may also spread to the brain (4-9). While the lungs are considered a common site of infection, C. ... 0.6 million cryptococcal meningitis cases each year result in mortality within 3 months of infection, even with treatment. In ...
  https://www.spandidos-publications.com/etm/14/6/5243
*  Alternaria solani - Wikipedia
Mature lesions are typically covered by a black, velvety mass of fungal spores that may be visible under proper light ... Initial infection occurs on older leaves, with concentric dark brown spots developing mainly in the leaf center. The disease ... Clear infected debris from field to reduce inoculum for the next year. Water plants in the morning so plants are wet for the ... This is especially important when fruit or tubers are infected as they can be used to spread the disease. In general, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternaria_solani
*  Peronospora hyoscyami f.sp. tabacina - Wikipedia
The disease spreads rapidly because of the fungal pathogen. The rate of continental spread is based on the potential for high ... Each year Peronospora Hyoscyami is introduced as blue mold, known as windblown spores from outside the region by infected ... This infection is called "systemic infection". The infection causes a stunt in growth and the leaves become narrow and short. ... Tobacco plants with an upright position of small patches of the seed bed are typically early signs of blue mold. These leaves ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peronospora_hyoscyami_f.sp._tabacina
*  Cyclaneusma needle cast - Wikipedia
After infection by Cyclaneusma, most pines do not display symptoms until 10 months after the initial infection. Symptoms ... Unfortunately these fungal spores are produced quite infrequently; after the disease infects needles, it will not produce ... Inoculated needles may not develop symptoms for up to a year from the infection date, proving difficult for the effectiveness ... It is typically recommended to apply five treatments of fungicide, such as chlorothalonil or dodine, when the threshold level ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclaneusma_needle_cast
*  Pine-pine gall rust - Wikipedia
The fungal infection results in gall formation on branches or trunks of infected hosts. Gall formation is typically not ... but is often hard to diagnose due to the inconspicuous initial symptoms and a lack of galls until the second year. A red ... There is also some evidence that rodents strip the wood from galls, but it is uncommon to see this result in further spread of ... They are surrounded by a membrane called a peridium that bursts, releasing the spores. Stimulation of dikaryotization is not ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pine-pine_gall_rust
*  Tree Fruit Diseases - Spring Control Strategies
Control must be vigilant during infection periods. During the peak time, consider using th ... Optimal temperature range for the spread of this fungus is between 60 to 68°F. Serious infection of a tree occurs in years with ... Bactericide applications typically begin at late petal fall or early shuck-split stage and continue on a 7-to-14-day interval ... The fungus does not like prolonged leaf wetness; high humidity is enough for the spores to germinate. Be mindful of dry weather ...
  https://extension.psu.edu/tree-fruit-diseases-spring-control-strategies
*  Eutypella parasitica - Wikipedia
Infection rates are typically 2%-10% in a particular stand, but it has been recorded to infect over 20%. N. Ogris; D. Jurc; M. ... Infection and spread of the disease is accomplished with the release of ascospores from perithecia. Therefore, the best way to ... Due to the slow development of the disease, these fruiting bodies are not produced until 5-8 years after initial infection. ... Each year, the fungus kills the callus material formed by the tree and invades more cambium during the growing season. During ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eutypella_parasitica
*  PP-232/PG133: 2013 Florida Plant Disease Management Guide: Guava (Psidiumguajava)
Conidia (asexual spores) are the fungal structures responsible for anthracnose infection. Conidia are produced on dead twigs, ... Conidia spread via rain splash and can cause infection; symptoms may develop shortly thereafter on any above ground host tissue ... Typically, Rhizoctonia spp. attack plants at the soil line causing root and stem rots. This pathogen can attack leaves as well ... Initial infections of the pathogen have been presumed to be via airborne basidiospores released from the gills on the ...
  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pg133
*  Leucostoma kunzei - Wikipedia
These airborne spores, as well as, insects provide an explanation for the spread of this disease from tree to tree. Once a ... All of this damage caused by this fungal pathogen does not typically begin until the host trees are at least 10-15 years old. ... The probable duration of this disease cycle is 1 year, due to pycnidial stromata which form within the first year of lesion ... Infection is initiated by the pathogen entering into the recent wounds of a susceptible host tree. These wounds can be created ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucostoma_kunzei
*  Alternaria dauci - Wikipedia
Mycelium and spores are spread through splashing rain, tools for cultivation or contaminated soils. Alternaria diseases, in ... Initial threshold recommendations vary depending on location, time of year, and moisture level. Different recommendations ... Petiole infection can also occur without any lesion development on leaflets, and A. dauci can additionally result in damping- ... Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database Farrar, James J.; Pryor, Barry M.; Davis, R. M. (August 2004). "Alternaria Diseases of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternaria_dauci
*  Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense - Wikipedia
The tips of the feeder roots are the initial sites of infection which then moves on to the rhizome. The signs of the disease ... By 1950 it had spread to all the banana-producing regions of the world with the exception of some islands in the South Pacific ... The average American eats 26.2 pounds of the Cavendish banana each year and the question is being asked as to whether this oft- ... cubense Pronunciation (help·info) is a fungal plant pathogen that causes Panama disease of banana (Musa spp.), also known as ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusarium_oxysporum_f.sp._cubense
*  Management of Invasive Aspergillosis
ABSTRACT: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a rare, serious fungal infection commonly affecting immunocompromised patients. The ... The lungs are the most frequent site of IA; consequently, symptoms and clinical manifestations are typically pulmonary. Because ... Following the inhalation of A fumigatus conidia (airborne spores), respiratory epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages ... The IDSA guidelines do not recommend combination therapy for the initial treatment of IA. Instead, salvage therapy is ...
  https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/management-of-invasive-aspergillosis
*  Field Guide to Sustainable Production of High-quality Durum Wheat in North Dakota - Publications
Crop rotations can reduce the initial inoculum of fungal leaf spot pathogens. Rotation of durum with any broadleaf crop will ... The greatest risk of Fusarium infection occurs when small grains are planted on last year's small-grain or corn residue. ... Fusarium spores can be carried by wind from other fields and from previous residues that have not yet decomposed to initiate an ... Durum wheat typically is planted later than many of the other early season crops. However, a reduction in yield may be ...
  https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/publications/crops/field-guide-to-sustainable-production-of-high-quality-durum-wheat-in-north-dakota
*  A case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis leading to pneumonia with unusual organisms. - Free Online Library
1-3) The hyphae are typically 10 [micro]m in length, septate, and branch at a 45[degrees] angle. Spores are small enough, at 2 ... A 50-year-old white male with a history of severe asthma and seizure disorder presented with a 5-month history of increasing ... Given his wide-spread bronchiectasis and other radiologic findings, he satisfied the criteria for proximal bronchiectasis as ... 12) Our patient's initial positive response to steroid treatment, lack of characteristic facial features, and lack of cutaneous ...
  https://www.thefreelibrary.com/A+case+of+allergic+bronchopulmonary+aspergillosis+leading+to+...-a0140161541
*  Cantaloupe and Specialty Melons | UGA Cooperative Extension
Fungal inoculum (spores, hyphae, sclerotia, etc.) may be spread by wind, rain, infected plants and seed, and infested soil ... Once infection takes place, the organism is spread over the field on the hands of workers or by cucumber beetles. Angular leaf ... Year Supply Utilization Season-average price Production1 Imports2 Total Exports2 Domestic Per capita use Current dollars3 ... Typically, one line of drip tape is installed beside each row. A field with a 5-foot row spacing will require 8,712 feet of ...
  http://extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.html?number=B1179
*  Coccidioidomycosis - Wikipedia
Nearly 3% to 5% of infected individuals do not recover from the initial acute infection and develop a chronic infection. This ... producing spores which are spread by the wind during succeeding dry weather. While the majority of cases are observed in the ... An indirect demonstration of fungal infection can be achieved also by serologic analysis detecting fungal antigen or host IgM ... The species are found in alkaline sandy soil, typically 10-30 cm below the surface. In harmony with the mycelium life cycle, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coccidioidomycosis
*  Agents of Mucormycosis (Microbiology) - The Clinical Advisor
Posaconazole is typically initiated in patients who can tolerate oral therapy once the infection has stabilized, with some ... Mucormycosis is primarily acquired in immunocompromised hosts through inhalation of fungal spores from the environment. Soft- ... Initial CT and MRI scans are sometimes unremarkable in patients during the initial stages of rhinocerebral mucormycosis but ... How do patients contract mucormycosis, and how do I prevent spread to other patients?. Epidemiology ...
  https://www.clinicaladvisor.com/infectious-diseases/agents-of-mucormycosis-microbiology/article/609275/
*  2004 Northeastern Division Meeting Abstracts
Identifying possible initial inoculum sources for common rust on sweet corn using back trajectory analyses. D. A. SHAH and H. R ... Symptom development and fungal colonization in tomato lines interacting with Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cacao ... sambucinum isolates by injecting 20 microliters containing about 10,000 spores (5.0 × 10(^4) spores/ml) in an incision and ... These approaches will advance our knowledge on the infection process of CP in tomato and will aid in the development of a model ...
  http://www.apsnet.org/members/divisions/ne/meetings/Pages/2004MeetingAbstracts.aspx
*  Cunninghamella bertholletiae - Wikipedia
Cunninghamella bertholletiae produces spores in globose sporangia atop sporangiophores that are typically tall enough to be ... Typically, initial pathology is from thrombosis and infarction. Common classes of mucormycoses include pulmonary, rhinocerebral ... The vast majority of the time, human infection is through airborne spores, although infections of deep wounds and medical ... There are few identified cases per year, but C. bertholletiae infections and other mucormycoses are increasing in prevalence in ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cunninghamella_bertholletiae
*  Fungicide use in the United States - Wikipedia
Black rot is spread through spores left in the mummied grapes infected the year before. Upon infection the grapes shrivel up ... Green rot is typically controlled by fungicides applied to control other fungal diseases that occur during blooming. It is only ... The initial symptoms are small spots on the undersides of the leaves. These appear 10-15 days after infection and grow until ... Powdery mildew is a common fungal infection of apples and can occur in almost any apple growing climate. The spores from fungi ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungicide_use_in_the_United_States
*  Dr. Pauls Piggy Paste Review - Does this work to clear up Nail Fungus? - ToenailFungusTreatments.com
Nail fungus is a fungal infection of one or more of the nails on the fingers or toes. These infections typically begin as a ... Kinsinger, 81 patients saw their nails clear within three to four months and new nails grew in without fungal spores. ... Other treatment options include a prescription antifungal nail polish called Penlac, however this make take up to one year to ... creates an environment that is no longer hospitable to the growth of the fungus and ultimately halts the growth and spread of ...
  http://toenailfungustreatments.com/dr-pauls-piggy-paste-review
*  Chocolate Could Bring the Forest Back | Worldwatch Institute
850 per year. In Côte d'Ivoire, by far the world's largest cocoa producer, workers are typically paid around $165 per year ( ... Each basidiocarp will release up to 90 million new fungal spores. The fungus's destructive potential in the dense plantation ... How it got there remains a matter of speculation but in any case, this initial outbreak was suppressed when the infected 200- ... But either way, the tree would no longer be commercially productive-even worse, it would be a factory of infection. ...
  http://worldwatch.org/node/510
*  Extension Publications | CAHNRS Core | Washington State University
... sexual spores) are released which give rise to the first infections of the year, called primary infection. Spores are ... What conditions initiate infection? Typically, it takes 1/10th of an inch of rain or irrigation and temperatures of 50°F or ... As the season progresses and infection is spread by wind, leaves may become distorted, curling upward. Severe infections may ... Note: the continued fungal activity post-harvest. Figure courtesy Claudia Probst and Gary Grove, WSU.. The effect of training ...
  http://treefruit.wsu.edu/crop-protection/disease-management/cherry-powdery-mildew/?print-view=true
*  American chestnut - Wikipedia
The airborne bark fungus spread 50 mi (80 km) a year and in a few decades girdled and killed up to three billion American ... the fungal spores are not carried to higher altitudes as easily. In March 2008, officials of the Ohio Department of Natural ... However, the stump sprouts rarely reach more than 6 m (20 ft) in height before blight infection returns. The total number of ... Planted outside the natural range of chestnut, these trees escaped the initial onslaught of chestnut blight, but in 1987, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_chestnut